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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics between frail and sarcopenia

From: Frailty is a useful predictive marker of postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy

  Sarcopenia (N = 37) p value
Frail (N = 11, 29.7%) Not frail* (N = 26, 70.3%)
Age (years) 82 (69-88) 76 (59-85) 0.026
Sex (male/female) 4/7 13/13 0.447
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (45.5%) 4 (15.4%) 0.051
 Cardiac valvular disease 2 (18.2%) 0 (0.0%) 0.025
 Myocardial infarction 2 (18.2%) 2 (7.7%) 0.348
 Chronic pulmonary disease or pneumonia 4 (36.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0.001
 Hypertension requiring medication 3 (27.3%) 7 (26.9%) 0.546
 Cerebrovascular accident 3 (27.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0.004
Albumin (g/l) 3.3 (2.6-4.0) 3.7 (3.1-4.6) 0.218
Prognostic nutritional index 36.2 (32.3-48.2) 47.1 (38.8-58.9) 0.540
Controlling nutritional status    <0.001
 0〜1 or 2〜4 4 (36.4%) 26 (100%)  
 5〜8 or 8〜 7 (63.6%) 0 (0.0%)  
Operative time (min) 563 (228-874) 497 (206-753) 0.122
Blood loss (g) 985 (223-2703) 646 (75-2613) 0.122
Intraoperative transfusion 6 (54.5%) 5 (19.2%) 0.032
Clavien-Dindo classification IIIa 8 (72.7%) 10 (38.5%) 0.057
 Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula 3 (27.3%) 7 (26.9%) 0.983
 Intra-abdominal abscess 1 (9.1%) 2 (7.7%) 0.887
 Bile leakage 0 (0.0%) 1 (3.8%) 0.510
 Wound dehiscence 1 (9.1%) 1 (3.8%) 0.519
 Organ/space surgical site infection 1 (9.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.119
 Respiratory failure 3 (27.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0.005
Postoperative hospital stay (day) 21 (14-83) 18 (8-431) 0.408
Postoperative 30-day mortality 1 (9.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.119
Postoperative 90-day mortality 3 (27.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0.005
  1. Values in median
  2. *Not frail: sarcopenia patients who were not satisfied the J-CHS criteria