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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics or all patients and between frail and pre-/non-frail patients

From: Frailty is a useful predictive marker of postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy

  Total (N = 93) Frail (N = 11) Pre-/non-frail (N = 82) p value
Age (years) 72 (27-88) 82 (69-88) 72 (27-85) 0.041
Sex (male/female) 57/36 4/7 53/29 0.071
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.7 (14.2-33.0) 19.7 (14.5-24.9) 22.0 (14.2-33.0) 0.242
Smoking (current and former) 45 (48.4%) 2 (18.2%) 43 (52.4%) 0.033
Alcohol 6 (6.5%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (7.1%) 0.350
Diabetes mellitus 23 (25.9%) 5 (45.5%) 18 (22.0%) 0.090
Antithrombotic drugs 21 (22.6%) 5 (45.5%) 16 (19.5%) 0.053
Grip strength (kg) 27.0 (10.0-48.0) 14.6 (10.0-22.8) 27.4 (13.1-48.0) 0.002
Skeletal muscle index (kg/m2) 6.7 (4.0-8.9) 4.7 (4.0-5.7) 6.8 (4.7-8.9) 0.063
Sarcopenia 37 (39.8%) 11 (100.0%) 26 (31.7%) < 0.001
Disease     0.539
 Pancreatic cancer 46 (49.5%) 6 (54.5%) 40 (48.8%)  
 Bile duct cancer (including papilla of Vater) 20 (21.5%) 4 (36.4%) 16 (19.5%)  
 Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm 9 (9.7%) 0 (0.0%) 9 (11.0%)  
 Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor 6 (6.5%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (7.3%)  
 Benign tumor 5 (5.4%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (6.1%)  
 Others 7 (7.5%) 1 (9.1%) 6 (7.3%)  
Surgical procedure     0.488
 Pancreatoduodenectomy 68 (73.1%) 9 (81.8%) 59 (72.0%)  
 Distal pancreatectomy 25 (26.9%) 2 (18.2%) 23 (28.0%)  
Soft pancreas 62 (66.7%) 7 (63.6%) 55 (67.1%) 0.820
Albumin (g/l) 4.0 (2.6-4.9) 3.3 (2.6-4.0) 4.0 (2.7-4.9) 0.009
Lymphocyte (×103/μl) 1551 (530-3724) 1242 (530-2124) 1568 (540-3724) 0.546
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 198 (72-335) 137 (72-230) 200 (89-335) 0.156
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 12.9 (8.4-19.6) 11.3 (9.4-14.0) 13.1 (8.4-19.6) 0.059
Prognostic nutritional index 48.2 (32.1-62.6) 36.2 (32.3-48.2) 49.0 (32.1-62.6) 0.002
Controlling nutritional status     < 0.001
 0〜1 or 2〜4 84 (90.3%) 4 (36.4%) 80 (97.6%)  
 5〜8 or 8〜 9 (9.7%) 7 (63.6%) 2 (2.4%)  
Operative time (min) 514 (206-874) 563 (228-874) 503 (206-872) 0.162
Blood loss (g) 685 (75-5671) 985 (223-2703) 662 (75-5671) 0.186
Intraoperative transfusion 20 (21.5%) 6 (54.5%) 14 (17.1%) 0.005
Clavien-Dindo classification IIIa 40 (43.0%) 8 (72.7%) 32 (39.0%) 0.034
Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula 16 (17.2%) 3 (27.3%) 13 (15.9%) 0.346
Postoperative hospital stay (day) 18 (7-431) 21 (14-83) 17 (7-431) 0.041
Postoperative 30-day mortality 1 (1.1%) 1 (9.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.006
Postoperative 90-day mortality 3 (3.2%) 3 (27.3%) 0 (0.0%) < 0.001
  1. Values in median