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Table 3 Univariate and multivariable analysis of survival

From: ALPPS versus two-stage hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases—–a comparative retrospective cohort study

 Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
 HR (95% CI)p valueHR (95% CI)p value
Demographics
 Sex (female = 1)1.27 (0.56–2.92).569  
 Age (≤ 60 years = 1)2.18 (0.96–4.93).063excluded 
 BMI (≤ 25 kg/m2 = 1)1.30 (0.16–10.33).803  
 ASA (I/II = 1)1.47 (0.61–3.56).393  
Oncological data
 Timing (synchronous = 1)2.03 (0.90–4.58).090excluded 
 Site of primary .471  
  Right-sided colon1   
  Left-sided colon0.50 (0.17–1.48)   
  Rectum0.67 (0.22–2.03)   
 T category primary (T1/T2 = 1)4.80 (0.63–36.67).131  
 N category primary (N0 = 1)0.60 (0.22–1.67).330  
 Preoperative chemotherapy (no = 1)1.92 (0.57–6.46).292  
 Second-line treatment (no = 1)1.03 (0.38–2.76).958  
 Number of cycles of chemotherapy .060 .024
  ≤ 61 1 
  > 63.38 (0.95–12.03) 5.92 (1.26–27.78) 
 Antibody utilization (no = 1)1.29 (0.57–2.90).540  
 Response to chemotherapy .024 .013
  Stable disease1 1 
  Partial remission0.32 (0.13–0.78) 0.17 (0.05–0.55) 
  Progressive diseasen. a. n. a. 
 Number of lesions at hepatectomy .763  
  ≤ 31   
  > 31.14 (0.48–2.70)   
 Largest tumor diameter at hepatectomy .099excluded 
  ≤ 351   
  > 351.98 (0.88–4.44)   
Clinical chemistry
 AST (≤ 30 U/l = 1)0.52 (0.23–1.17).112  
 ALT (≤ 30 U/l = 1)0.78 (0.35–1.75).550  
 GGT (≤ 75 U/l = 1)1.00 (0.44–2.27).944  
 Bilirubin (≤ 0.4 mg/dl = 1)1.54 (0.68–3.48).296  
 Alkaline phosphatase (≤ 105 U/l = 1)1.87 (0.81–4.30).143  
 INR (≤ 1 = 1)0.77 (0.32–1.85).553  
 Prothrombin time (≥ 100% = 1)0.86 (0.37–2.02).731  
 Hemoglobin (≤ 13 g/dl = 1)0.77 (0.34–1.73).520  
 CRP, mg/l (≤ 10 mg/l = 1)2.38 (1.02–5.57).045excluded 
Operative and inter-stage data
 Operative approach .954  
  ALPPS1   
  TSH.976 (0.43–2.23)   
 Operative time step 1 (≤ 180 min = 1)1.02 (0.42–2.45).972  
 Blood transfusion step 1 (no = 1)1.18 (0.47–2.98).772  
 Interval between stages (≤ 35 days = 1)0.69 (0.28–1.67).408  
 Inter-stage chemotherapy (no = 1)0.04 (0.01–4.11).171  
 Completion (no = 1)0.46 (0.06–3.67).460  
 Operative time step 2 (≤ 240 min = 1)0.83 (0.37–1.86).649  
 Blood transfusion step 2 (no = 1)1.66 (0.73–3.78).231  
Pathological data
R1 resection (no = 1)0.04 (0.01–44.68)475  
  1. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were carried out to determine predictors of overall survival. Variables displaying a p value < 0.1 were included in the multivariable Cox regression model
  2. ALPPS associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AP alkaline phosphatase, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BMI body mass index, CRP c-reactive protein, GGT gamma glutamyltransferase, INR international normalized ratio