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Table 2 Estimated hazard ratios in the full and reduced multivariable flexible parametric regression models

From: Natural disease progression and novel survival prediction model for hepatocellular carcinoma with spinal metastases: a 10-year single-center study

PredictorsFull modelReduced model
HR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP value
Age group (years)
 ≤ 601.00Reference 1.00Reference 
 > 602.130.99, 4.540.0521.770.97, 3.230.062
Karnofskys Performance Status
 Good1.00Reference 1.00Reference 
 Moderate1.860.71, 4.880.2042.000.96, 4.180.066
 Poor3.641.61, 8.210.0022.961.48, 5.920.002
Cirrhosis
 No1.00Reference  Not included 
 Yes1.200.60, 2.390.600   
Ascites
 No1.00Reference  Not included 
 Yes1.050.32, 3.420.935   
Total bilirubin (mg/dL)
 < 2.01.00Reference 1.00Reference 
 2.0–3.03.270.20, 12.590.0852.220.82, 5.990.114
 > 3.09.222.46, 34.500.00110.443.92, 27.82< 0.001
Serum albumin (mg/dL)
 > 3.51.00Reference  Not included 
 2.8–3.50.800.34, 1.910.619   
 < 2.82.661.05, 6.710.039   
Number of primary tumor
 Single tumor1.00Reference 1.00Reference 
 Multiple tumor3.421.23, 9.510.0192.631.29, 5.350.008
Portal vein involvement
 No1.00Reference  Not included 
 Yes1.460.75, 2.850.265   
Visceral organ metastasis
 No1.00Reference  Not included 
 Yes1.190.85, 1.670.301   
Number of vertebral columns involved
 11.00Reference  Not included 
 21.100.52, 2.320.807   
 ≥ 31.700.69, 4.160.248   
Number of extraspinal bone metastases
 01.00Reference  Not included 
 1–20.930.31, 2.780.892   
 ≥ 31.030.33, 3.190.964   
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval