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Table 3 The Cox regression analyses of predictive factors

From: Clinical impacts of resection margin status and clinicopathologic parameters on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

 Local recurrenceDistant metastasisOverall survival
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Univariate analyses
 Age (≥ 65)0.891 (0.379–2.095)0.7911.382 (0.845–2.260)0.1971.598 (0.964–2.651)0.069
 Sex (male)0.790 (0.342–1.823)0.5810.992 (0.630–1.565)0.9740.767 (0.483–1.219)0.262
 Tumor location (head)1.247 (0.532–2.924)0.6121.567 (0.980–2.507)0.0611.564 (0.972–2.519)0.066
 Tumor size (pT3/pT4)1.937 (0.646–5.808)0.2381.213 (0.601–2.448)0.5911.959 (1.037–3.698)0.038
 Differentiation grade (G3/G4)3.130 (1.133–8.651)0.0282.330 (1.186–4.577)0.0142.710 (1.423–5.162)0.002
 Differentiation grade (G2/G3/G4)1.854 (0.773–4.448)0.1671.750 (1.098–2.790)0.0191.717 (1.066- 2.764)0.026
 Microvenous invasion (yes)3.136 (0.422–23.334)0.2642.014 (0.874–4.640)0.1001.471 (0.672–3.223)0.334
 Lymphatic permeation (yes)1.278 (0.472–3.466)0.6292.273 (1.224–4.224)0.0091.911 (1.026–3.558)0.041
 Perineural invasion (yes)4.169 (0.560–31.015)0.1631.060 (0.559–2.012)0.8581.136 (0.582–2.219)0.708
 Resection margin (R1)1.396 (0.595–3.273)0.4431.048 (0.651–1.687)0.8461.188 (0.738–1.912)0.479
 Nodal metastasis (yes)1.024 (0.437–2.399)0.9562.082 (1.262–3.433)0.0041.574 (0.967–2.563)0.068
 TNM stage (III/IV)1.007 (0.340–2.980)0.990n.d.n.d.1.768 (1.035–3.018)0.037
 Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (yes)1.196 (0.516–2.772)0.6770.865 (0.550–1.361)0.5310.981 (0.617–1.560)0.935
 Adjuvant chemotherapy (yes)0.867 (0.202- 3.728)0.8480.872 (0.377–2.015)0.7480.622 (0.284–1.364)0.236
 Postoperative radiotherapy (yes)1.339 (0.313–5.739)0.6940.780 (0.314–1.941)0.5930.758 (0.305–1.884)0.551
Multivariate analyses
 Age (≥ 65)n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.1.481 (0.875–2.506)0.143
 Tumor location (head)n.d.n.d.1.253 (0.770–2.039)0.3641.621 (0.988–2.661)0.056
 Tumor size (pT3/pT4)n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.1.586 (0.805–3.124)0.182
 Differentiation grade (G3/G4)n.d.n.d.2.705 (1.353–5.408)0.0052.372 (1.228–4.582)0.010
 Nodal metastasis (yes)n.d.n.d.2.125 (1.258–3.590)0.0051.260 (0.757–2.099)0.374
 Age (≥ 65)n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.1.603 (0.940–2.736)0.083
 Tumor location (head)n.d.n.d.1.320 (0.809–2.155)0.2671.710 (1.033–2.832)0.037
 Tumor size (pT3/pT4)n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.1.902 (0.974–3.717)0.060
 Differentiation grade (G2/G3/G4)n.d.n.d.1.687 (1.057–2.692)0.0281.780 (1.091–2.905)0.021
 Nodal metastasis (yes)n.d.n.d.1.857 (1.101–3.132)0.0201.140 (0.678–1.918)0.621
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, G1 well-differentiated carcinoma, G2 moderately differentiated carcinoma, G3 poorly differentiated carcinoma, G4 undifferentiated carcinoma, n.d. not determined