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Table 6 Prognostic factors for survival and recurrence of young patients

From: Prognoses, outcomes, and clinicopathological characteristics of very elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy

 Overall survivalRelapse-free survival
CharacteristicsUnivariate (p)Multivariate (p) (hazard ratio) (95% CI)Univariate (p)Multivariate (p) (hazard ratio) (95% CI)
Epidemiology    
 Sex, male0.42 0.26 
 HBs-Ag positive0.72 0.13 
 HCV-Ab positive0.18 0.80 
 NBNC0.38 0.13 
Biochemical factors    
 Platelets < 100,000/mm30.84 0.34 
 PA < 80%0.030.27 (1.261) (0.833–1.908)< 0.010.01 (1.449) (1.063–1.974)
 ChE < 180 IU/l< 0.010.13 (1.416) (0.901–2.225)< 0.010.79 (0.954) (0.666–1.366)
 Albumin < 3.5 g/dl< 0.010.47 (1.215) (0.711–2.076)< 0.01< 0.01 (1.834) (1.213–2.774)
 ICGR15 ≥ 15%0.94 0.09 
 AFP ≥ 20 ng/ml< 0.01< 0.01 (1.769) (1.242–2.520)< 0.010.02 (1.344) (1.029–1.755)
 PIVKA-II ≥ 400 mAU/ml< 0.010.83 (1.045) (0.691–1.580)< 0.010.88 (0.977) (0.715–1.333)
Tumor factors    
 Tumor size ≥ 10 cm< 0.010.78 (0.932) (0.570–1.526)< 0.010.01 (1.637) (1.122–2.388)
 Tumor number multiple< 0.01< 0.01 (1.674) (1.194–2.346)< 0.01< 0.01 (1.704) (1.307–2.222)
 Macroscopic type except simple nodular< 0.010.52 (0.880) (0.593–1.306)< 0.010.72 (0.947) (0.704–1.274)
Histological factors    
 Differentiation, poor< 0.01< 0.01 (1.818) (1.270–2.601)< 0.010.01 (1.419) (1.070–1.884)
 PVI< 0.01< 0.01 (1.904) (1.290–2.808)< 0.010.02 (1.467) (1.061–2.028)
 HVI< 0.010.02 (1.718) (1.080–2.735)< 0.010.66 (1.089) (0.734–1.615)
 Fibrosis0.18 0.05 
Surgical factors    
 FRLR ≥ 50%0.42 0.49 
 Non-anatomical resection0.79 0.89 
 Blood loss ≥ 400 ml< 0.010.01 (1.604) (1.108–2.323)< 0.010.15 (1.218) (0.927–1.601)
  1. PA prothrombin activity, ChE cholinesterase, ICGR15 indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, PIVKA-II protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, PVI portal venous invasion, HVI hepatic venous invasion, FRLR future remnant liver rates