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Table 4 Clinical variables and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) observed serum metabolites with intensity differences associated with vascular invasion (VI) for hepatocellular carcinoma

From: Serum metabolites may be useful markers to assess vascular invasion and identify normal alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver resection: a pilot study

MetabolitesWithout VIWith VIP valuea
Investigation cohort (n= 35)
 Tumor size (cm)3.47 ± 0.496.29 ± 1.220.047
 AFP (ng/ml)6541.91 ± 6486.7630428.30 ± 30156.350.360
 ICG-15 (%)9.80 ± 1.109.11 ± 1.540.711
 Formate19.697 ± 3.2337.592 ± 7.830.023
Validation cohort (n= 22)
 Tumor size (cm)3.80 ± 0.984.33 ± 0.950.710
 AFP (ng/ml)145.82 ± 87.3839289.31 ± 39109.130.343
 ICG-15 (%)13.18 ± 2.429.35 ± 2.100.256
 Formateb14.807 ± 1.4818.776 ± 0.990.042
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± SE
  2. aStudent’s t test
  3. bExpressed in arbitrary units