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Table 3 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) observed serum metabolites with intensity differences associated with different AFP for hepatocellular carcinoma

From: Serum metabolites may be useful markers to assess vascular invasion and identify normal alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver resection: a pilot study

MetabolitesAFP < 15 ng/mlAFP ≥ 15 ng/mlP valuea
Investigation cohort (n= 35)
 Glycine26.128 ± 2.8318.627 ± 1.090.006
 O-Acetylcarnitine0.600 ± 0.080.374 ± 0.110.025
 Histidine6.597 ± 0.365.532 ± 0.370.062
 Ornithine9.263 ± 1.057.065 ± 0.580.073
Validation cohort (n= 22)
 Glycine26.810 ± 1.3327.195 ± 2.190.752
 O-Acetylcarnitine0.958 ± 0.090.687 ± 0.080.032
 Histidine7.303 ± 0.326.070 ± 0.550.153
 Ornithine10.504 ± 0.869.061 ± 0.750.215
  1. Metabolites were expressed as mean ± SE in arbitrary units
  2. aStudent’s t test