Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics between investigation cohort (n = 35) and validation cohort (n = 22)

From: Serum metabolites may be useful markers to assess vascular invasion and identify normal alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver resection: a pilot study

 Categorical variables (n (%)) Continuous variables (mean ± SE)
InvestigationValidationP valueInvestigationValidationP value
Male gender27 (77.1)19 (86.4)0.502Age (year)62.7 ± 1.960.2 ± 2.40.429
HBV infection23 (65.7)11 (50.0)0.277BMI (Kg/m2)23.9 ± 0.525.6 ± 0.70.063
HCV infection8 (22.9)9 (40.9)0.234ICG-15 (%)9.53 ± 0.8811.44 ± 1.640.316
AFP > 15 ng/mL21 (60.0)10 (45.5)0.413AFP (ng/mL)16096 ± 1256817938 ± 177770.931
Major procedure9 (25.7)6 (27.3)1.000CEA (ng/mL)6.07 ± 4.071.57 ± 0.200.361
Encapsulation28 (80.0)22 (100.0)0.036CA 19-9 (U/mL)26.6 ± 3.722.1 ± 3.90.421
Vascular invasion14 (40.0)10 (45.5)0.785Size (cm)4.59 ± 0.614.05 ± 0.680.557
Daughter nodules4 (11.4)2 (9.1)1.000    
Tumor rupture3 (8.6)1 (4.5)1.000    
Cirrhosis14 (40.0)13 (59.1)0.184    
Edmondson and Steiner Grade (I/II/III/IV)4(11.8)/10(28.6)/18(52.9)/3(8.8)3(13.6)/13(59.1)/5(22.7)/1(4.5)0.073