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Table 1 Patient demographics and tumor characteristics of the investigation cohort (n = 35)

From: Serum metabolites may be useful markers to assess vascular invasion and identify normal alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver resection: a pilot study

 No (%)
Age (year) (mean 62.7 ± 1.9) 
6520 (57.1)
 > 6515 (42.9)
Gender 
Male27 (77.1)
Female8 (22.9)
Smoking 
Yes11 (31.4)
No24 (68.6)
Alcohol 
Yes6 (17.1)
No29 (82.9)
HBsAg 
Positive23 (65.7)
Negative12 (34.3)
Anti-HCV Ab 
Positive8 (22.9)
Negative27 (77.1)
Cirrhosis 
Yes14 (40.0)
No21 (60.0)
ICG-15 (%) 
1020 (57.1)
> 1015 (42.9)
AFP (ng/ml) 
1514 (40.0)
> 1521 (60.0)
AFP (ng/ml) 
20027 (77.1)
> 2008 (22.9)
Surgical procedure 
Major9 (25.7)
Minor26 (74.3)
Size (cm) 
524 (68.6)
> 511 (31.4)
Encapsulation 
Yes28 (80.0)
No7 (20.0)
Vascular invasion 
Yes14 (40.0)
No21 (60.0)
Tumor rupture 
Yes3 (8.6)
No32 (91.4)
Daughter nodules 
Yes4 (11.4)
No31 (88.6)
Resection margin 
Positive0 (0)
Negative35 (100)
Edmondson grade 
I/II4(11.8)/10(28.6)
III/IV18(52.9)/3(8.8)
Early recurrencea 
Yes4 (11.4)
No31 (88.6)
  1. aTumor recurrence within 2 years after surgery