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Table 1 Pathophysiology of postoperative pain

From: Postoperative pain pathophysiology and treatment strategies after CRS + HIPEC for peritoneal cancer

Nociceptive pain
 Inflammatory nociceptive pain [11, 12]Peripheral sensitization [13]Prostaglandin E2, cytokines, nerve growth factor, and substance P. DAMPs, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10.
 Central sensitization [14]Microglia and inflammatory factors
Neuropathic pain
 Chemotherapeutic agentsMitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress [15]
Increased calcium level
Activation of glutamate receptor
Activation of TRPV1 and TRPV4 [16]
Increased expression of voltage-gated sodium channels [17]
Aberrant expression of voltage-gated potassium channels [18]
Neuroinflammation
Chronic painNerve injury, excessive inflammatory response, abnormal immune regulation [19]