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Table 2 Association of relative angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) expression at the tumor-infiltrating front (TIF) or central area (TCA) with clinicopathological characteristics of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as determined by the chi-squared (χ2) test

From: Angiogenic inflammation and formation of necrosis in the tumor microenvironment influence patient survival after radical surgery for de novo hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhosis

Variable ANG1 high/TIF ANG1 low/TIF p
No. of patients 9 49  
Patient- and tumor-related variables
  Patient age, years    0.342
    ≤ 60 2 (22.7%) 19 (38.8%)  
    > 60 7 (77.8%) 30 (61.2%)  
  Gender    0.079
    Female 9 (100.0%) 36 (73.5%)  
    Male 0 (00.0%) 13 (26.5%)  
  Multiple tumor nodules    0.376
    Positive 1 (1.1%) 12 (24.5%)  
    Negative 8 (88.9%) 37 (75.5%)  
  Tumor size, mm    0.114
    ≤ 50 0 (00.0%) 11 (22.4%)  
    > 50 9 (100.0%) 38 (77.6%)  
  Angioinvasion    0.634
    Positive 4 (44.4%) 26 (53.1%)  
    Negative 5 (55.6%) 23 (46.9%)  
  Histologic differentiation    0.786
    Well 2 (22.2%) 9 (18.4%)  
    Moderate/poor 7 (77.8%) 40 (81.6%)  
  Pathologic T stage    0.079
    T1/T2 7 (77.8%) 22 (45.8%)  
    T3/T4 2 (22.2%) 27 (54.2%)  
  Pathologic N stage    0.537
    Positive 0 (00.0%) 2 (4.1%)  
    Negative 9 (100.0%) 47(95.9%)  
  TEMs in TIF    0.132
    Positive 8 (88.9%) 31 (63.3%)  
    Negative 1 (11.1%) 18 (36.7%)  
Operative variables
  R status    0.691
    Positive 1 (11.1%) 8 (16.3%)  
    Negative 8 (88.9%) 41 (83.7%)  
Variables of patient outcome
  Local tumor recurrence    0.007
    Positive 6 (66.7%) 11 (22.4%)  
    Negative 3 (33.3%) 38 (77.6%)  
  Overall tumor recurrence    0.072
    Positive 6 (66.7%) 17 (34.7%)  
    Negative 3 (33.3%) 32 (65.3%)  
  Metastases    0.513
    Positive 1 (1.1%) 10 (20.4%)  
    Negative 8 (88.9%) 39 (79.6%)  
Variable ANG1 high/TCA ANG1 low/TCA p
  No. of patients 12 46  
Patient- and tumor-related variables
  TEMs in TCA    0.111
    Positive 5 (41.7%) 9 (19.6%)  
    Negative 7 (58.3%) 37 (80.4%)  
  TEMs in TIF    0.182
    Positive 10 (83.3%) 29 (63.0%)  
    Negative 2 (16.7%) 17 (36.0%)  
  Angioinvasion    0.245
    Positive 8 (66.7%) 22 (47.8%)  
    Negative 4 (33.3%) 24 (52.2%)  
Variables of patient outcome
  Metastases    0.024
    Positive 5 (41.7%) 6 (13.0%)  
    Negative 7 (58.3%) 40 (87.0%)  
  1. The Fischer test was applied when the number of patients in the subgroups was less than five (n < 5) in more than 25% of cases