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Table 1 Association of the presence of TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) at the tumor-infiltrating front (TIF) with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as determined by the chi-squared (χ2) test

From: Angiogenic inflammation and formation of necrosis in the tumor microenvironment influence patient survival after radical surgery for de novo hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhosis

Variable TEM+/TIF TEM/TIF p
No. of patients 39 19  
Patient- and tumor-related variables
  Patient age, years 0.094
    ≤ 60 17 (43.6%) 4 (21.1%)  
    > 60 22 (56.4%) 15 (78.9%)  
  Gender 0.029
    Female 27 (69.2%) 18 (94.7%)  
    Male 12 (30.8%) 1 (5.3%)  
  Multiple tumor nodules 0.862
    Positive 9 (23.1%) 4 (21.1%)  
    Negative 30 (76.9%) 15 (78.9%)  
  Tumor size, mm 0.319
    ≤ 50 6 (15.4%) 5 (26.3%)  
    > 50 33 (84.6%) 14 (73.7%)  
  Angioinvasion 0.113
    Positive 23 (59.0%) 7 (36.8%)  
    Negative 16 (41.0%) 12 (63.2%)  
  Lymphangiosis carcinomatosa 0.727
    Positive 12 (30.8%) 5 (26.3%)  
    Negative 27 (69.2%) 14 (73.7%)  
  Histologic differentiation 0.015
    Well 4 (10.3%) 7 (36.8%)  
    Moderate/poor 35 (89.7%) 12 (63.2%)  
  Pathologic T stage 0.631
    T1/T2 19 (48.7%) 10 (55.6%)  
    T3/T4 20 (51.3%) 8 (44.4%)  
  Pathologic N stage 0.315
    Positive 2 (5.1%) 0 (0.0%)  
    Negative 37 (94.9%) 19 (100.0%)  
Operative variables
  R status 0.464
    Positive 7 (17.9%) 2 (10.5%)  
    Negative 32 (82.1%) 17 (89.5%)  
Variables of patient outcome
  Local tumor recurrence 0.005
    Positive 16 (41.0%) 1 (5.3%)  
    Negative 23 (59.0%) 18 (94.7%)  
  Overall tumor recurrence 0.043
    Positive 19 (48.7%) 4 (21.1%)  
    Negative 20 (51.3%) 15 (78.9%)  
  Metastases 0.667
    Positive 8 (20.5%) 3 (15.8%)  
    Negative 31 (79.5%) 16 (84.2%)  
  1. The Fischer test was applied when the number of patients in the subgroups was less than five (n < 5) in more than 25% of cases