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Table 2 Detailed information on the 11 hub genes identified in the PPI network

From: BCL2 and hsa-miR-181a-5p are potential biomarkers associated with papillary thyroid cancer based on bioinformatics analysis

Gene Full name Overview Expression in PTC Reference
FN1 Fibronectin 1 FN1 is involved in cell adhesion and migration processes including host defense and metastasis. Upregulated [29]
CCND1 Cyclin D1 CCND1 has been demonstrated to interact with tumor suppressor protein Rb. Upregulated [30]
MET MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase MET plays a role in cellular survival, embryogenesis, and cellular migration and invasion. Downregulated [31]
RUNX2 RUNX family transcription factor 2 RUNX2 is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis. Upregulated [32]
IRS1 Insulin receptor substrate 1 Mutations in IRS1 are associated with type II diabetes and susceptibility to insulin resistance. No relevant biological experiments [33]
SERPINA1 Serpin family A member 1 The protein encoded by SERPINA1 is an inhibitor whose targets include elastase, plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasminogen activator. Upregulated [34]
KRT19 Keratin 19 KRT19 is responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells. It is specifically expressed in the periderm. Upregulated [35]
FGFR2 Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 FGFR-2 is involved in regulating cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as in the response to injury and tissue repair. Downregulated [36]
MUC1 Mucin 1, cell surface associated Overexpression, aberrant intracellular localization, and changes in the glycosylation of MUC1 have been associated with carcinomas. Downregulated [37]
NCAM1 Neural cell adhesion molecule 1, also known as CD56 NCAM1 is involved in the development of the nervous system, the expansion of T cells and dendritic cells with a regulatory role in cell motility and migratory capacity of neoplastic cells. Downregulated [38]
WFS1 Wolframin ER transmembrane glycoprotein Mutations in WFS1 are associated with Wolfram syndrome, also called DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), an autosomal recessive disorder. No related references [39]