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Table 2 Relationships between perineural invasion and clinicopathologic factors of gallbladder cancer patients

From: Indications for extrahepatic bile duct resection due to perineural invasion in patients with gallbladder cancer

CharacteristicsPNI (−)PNI (+)p value
 n = 37 (74.0%)n = 13 (26.0%) 
Age (years)
 < 7015 (40.5)8 (61.5)0.215
 70 22 (59.5)5 (38.5) 
Gender
 Male9 (23.4)8 (61.5)0.021*
 Female28 (75.7)5 (38.5) 
Postoperative chemotherapy
 No29 (78.4)2 (15.4)< 0.001*
 Yes8 (21.6)11 (84.6) 
Postoperative complications
 No36 (97.3)10 (76.9)0.049*
 Yes1 (2.7)3 (23.1) 
Size (mm)
 < 3520 (54.1)6 (46.2)0.751
 35 17 (45.9)7 (53.8) 
Circumferential tumor location
 Hepatic side21 (56.8)11 (84.6)0.098
 No hepatic side16 (43.2)2 (15.4) 
Tumor location
 Proximal10 (27.0)10 (76.9)0.003*
 Distal27 (73.0)3 (23.1) 
Lymphatic invasion
 No27 (73.0)3 (23.1)0.003*
 Yes10 (27.0)10 (76.9) 
Vascular invasion
 No32 (86.5)3 (23.1)< 0.001*
 Yes5 (13.5)10 (76.9) 
T category
 T114 (37.8)0 (0.0)0.010*
 T2, T323 (62.2)13 (100.0) 
N category
 N (-)29 (78.4)8 (61.5)0.281
 N (+)8 (21.6)5 (38.5) 
Number of resected lymph nodes6.325.000.494
Lymph node ratio0.240.210.791
  1. PNI perineural invasion. Significant differences between samples are indicated as *p <0.05