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Table 4 Multivariate risk analysis. Impact of various characteristics on overall survival of all included patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after curative intended pancreas surgery (n = 251)

From: Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: retrospective real-life data

 Survival [months]CI [months]p
GenderMale19.616.2–23.10.705
Female21.916.8–27.0
Age [years]< 6322.814.9–30.70.085
< 7222.517.7–27.4
≥ 7217.613.7–21.4
BMI [kg/m2]> 24,618.716.1–21.30.903
≥ 24,621.918.2–25.6
Weight loss [kg] (preoperatively)< 519.014.5–23.50.878
≥ 521.217.1–25.3
ComorbiditiesYes20.717.5–24.00.464
No19.57.9–31.2
Pancreatitis (preoperatively)Yes18.514.3–22.70.395
No22.518.1–27.0
Diabetes (postoperatively)Yes21.215.8–26.50.565
No20.316.2–24.5
ASA [12]I20.411.1–29.60.732
II21.517.8–25.2
III19.713.5–25.3
IV12.13.1–21.1
AlcoholYes19.72.7–23.50.585
No17.217.2–23.5
NicotineYes22.816.3–29.20.661
No19.716.2–23.2
Diagnosis to OP [days]< 2320.416.5–24.20.817
≥ 2320.415.6–25.1
Duration of OP [min]< 40019.616.5–22.70.505
≥ 40021.916.8–27.1
ICU stay [days]< 519.413.7–25.10.837
≥ 520.414.6–26.1
Hospital stay [days]< 1820.816.2–25.40.147
≥ 1820.416.4–24.3
Drain removal [days]< 719.615.6–23.50.075
≥ 720.416.1–24.6
Complications (intraoperatively)Yes17.414.2–20.60.385
No21.218.2–24.2
Complications (postoperatively)Yes21.915.1–28.70.994
No20.418.2–22.5
Blood transfusion (intraoperatively)Yes13.43.0–23.80.118
No20.817.6–24.1
Re-operationYes15.110.1–20.20.323
No22.518.5–24.6
Adjuvant chemotherapyYes25.621.8–29.40.001
No14.311.0–17.7
Abandonment of chemotherapyYes27.722.6–32.80.009
No19.711.3–281
Cycles1–3140.2–11.70.026
4–526.33–20.4
627.71.7–24.4
RehabilitationYes21.518.3–24.80.159
No15.18.2–22.1
OP to rehabilitation [days]< 2123.614.9–32.30.419
≥ 2118.516.5–20.5
Tumor localizationCaput20.417.2–23.50.515
Corpus19.46.2–40.6
Caudae22.611.3–33.8
Tumor sizeT138.319.9–56.60.212
T220.715.7–25.8
T319.716.1–23.3
T410.10–21.9
Tumor gradeG1/G221.616.7–26.40.019
G3/G415.27.3–23.1
Lymph node invasionN030.624.2–37.6< 0.001
N117.31.8–13.8
Lymph vessel invasionL026.612.3–41.00.014
L117.413.3–21.6
Vein invasionV022.618.5–26.60.016
V114.411.5–17.4
V210.3n/c
Perineural invasionPn021.615.3–27.80.242
Pn119.614.9–24.3
Distant metastasesM020.817.7–24.00.012
M16.61.4–17.4
ResectionR024.319.6–29.2< 0.001
R113.310.7–15.9
R214.417.3–23.4
CA 19.9 [U/mL] (time of diagnosis)< 3723.621.3–33.40.071
< 10027.624.3–41.0
< 50018.018.0–26.3
< 100014.113.3–23.5
≥ 100010.49.3–27.5
CA 19.9 [U/mL] (postoperatively)< 3726.425.3–32.80.031
< 10015.912.2–28.4
< 50014.412.3–22.5
< 100013.0− 11.3 to 44.2
≥ 10009.97.2–18.3
CA 19.9 [U/mL] (time of recurrence)< 3725.221.8–35.40.193
< 10022.519.0–29.3
< 50023.720.8–31.1
< 100016.314.9–25.0
≥ 100010.310.1–18.0
  1. Reference range of CA 19.9 < 37 U/mL
  2. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, n/c not calculated, OP operation