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Table 1 Demographic and perioperative characteristics before and after propensity score matching

From: Laparoscopic gastrectomy with and without prophylactic drains in gastric cancer: a propensity score-matched analysis

  Before propensity score matching After propensity score matching
Drain No drain P value Drain No drain P value
(n = 327) (n = 301) (n = 145) (n = 145)
Sex, n (%)    0.048    0.613
 Male 237 (72.5) 196 (65.1)   102 (70.3) 97 (66.9)  
 Female 90 (27.5) 105 (34.9)   43 (29.7) 48 (33.1)  
Age, mean ± SD, years 68.8 ± 10.0 69.2 ± 11.3 0.629 68.3 ± 10.7 68.4 ± 11.6 0.937
Body mass index (BMI), mean ± SD 22.7 ± 3.4 22.6 ± 3.0 0.527 22.7 ± 3.1 22.6 ± 2.9 0.895
Performance status (ECOG), n (%)    0.284    0.966
 0 193 (59.0) 158 (52.5)   88 (60.7) 88 (60.7)  
 1 112 (34.3) 114 (37.9)   46 (31.7) 44 (30.3)  
 2 21 (6.4) 26 (8.6)   11 (7.6) 12 (8.3)  
 3 1 (0.3) 3 (1.0)   0 (0) 1 (0.7)  
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 27 (8.3) 17 (5.6) 0.214 8 (5.5) 10 (6.9) 0.809
 Heart failure 2 (0.6) 4 (1.3) 0.434 1 (0.7) 1 (0.7) 1
 Hypertension 127 (38.8) 120 (39.9) 0.807 57 (39.3) 60 (41.4) 0.811
 Diabetes mellitus 51 (15.6) 43 (14.3) 0.656 22 (15.2) 21 (14.5) 1
 Chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis 20 (6.1) 6 (2.0) 0.015 3 (2.1) 5 (3.4) 0.723
 Hemodialysis 2 (0.6) 2 (0.7) 1 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 1
 Ventilatory impairment 69 (21.1) 58 (19.3) 0.619 29 (20.0) 25 (17.2) 0.651
 Regular steroid use 9 (2.8) 3 (1.0) 0.146 4 (2.8) 3 (2.1) 1
 Anti-thrombotic therapy 47 (14.4) 34 (11.3) 0.284 17 (11.7) 21 (14.5) 0.602
 History of abdominal surgery 122 (37.3) 105 (34.9) 0.561 57 (39.3) 51 (35.2) 0.544
Depth of invasion, n (%)    < 0.001    0.943
 cT1 125 (38.2) 180 (59.8)   80 (55.2) 75 (51.7)  
 cT2 60 (18.3) 53 (17.6)   24 (16.6) 26 (17.9)  
 cT3 62 (19.0) 33 (11.0)   19 (13.1) 19 (13.1)  
 cT4 80 (24.5) 35 (11.6)   22 (15.2) 25 (17.2)  
Node metastasis, n (%)    < 0.001    0.48
 cN0 230 (70.3) 253 (84.1)   118 (81.4) 112 (77.2)  
 cN1 48 (14.7) 24 (8.0)   10 (6.9) 17 (11.7)  
 cN2 39 (11.9) 20 (6.6)   12 (8.3) 13 (9.0)  
 cN3 10 (3.1) 4 (1.3)   5 (3.4) 3 (2.1)  
Preoperative chemotherapy, n (%) 26 (8.0) 13 (4.3) 0.069 9 (6.2) 9 (6.2) 1
Operative procedure, n (%)    < 0.001    
 Distal gastrectomy (DG) 173 (52.9) 256 (85.0)   104 (71.7) 109 (75.2)  
 Total gastrectomy (TG) 134 (41.0) 40 (13.3)   34 (23.4) 32 (22.1)  
 Remnant gastrectomy 20 (6.1) 5 (1.7)   7 (4.8) 4 (2.8)  
Extent of lymphadenectomy, n (%)    < 0.001    0.878
 DG D1+ or less 86 (26.3) 167 (55.5)   58 (40.0) 63 (43.4)  
 DG D2 87 (26.6) 89 (29.6)   46 (31.7) 46 (31.7)  
 TG D1+ or less 115 (35.2) 43 (14.3)   38 (26.2) 34 (23.4)  
 TG D2 39 (11.9) 2 (0.7)   3 (2.1) 2 (1.4)  
Combined resection of other organs, n (%) 40 (12.2) 4 (1.3) < 0.001 3 (2.1) 2 (1.4) 1
Type of reconstruction, n (%)    < 0.001    0.923
 Billroth I 108 (33.0) 189 (62.8)   74 (51.0) 80 (55.2)  
 Billroth II 44 (13.5) 45 (15.0)   19 (13.1) 20 (13.8)  
 Roux-en-Y (DG) 22 (6.7) 22 (7.3)   11 (7.6) 9 (6.2)  
 Roux-en-Y (TG; functional end-to-end) 101 (30.9) 40 (13.3)   34 (23.4) 31 (21.4)  
 Roux-en-Y (TG; overlap) 51 (15.6) 5 (1.7)   7 (4.8) 5 (3.4)  
 Roux-en-Y (TG; circular stapler) 1 (0.3) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0)  
R status, n (%)    0.004    0.195
 R0 286 (87.5) 285 (94.7)   139 (95.9) 132 (91.0)  
 R1 24 (7.3) 7 (2.3)   2 (1.4) 7 (4.8)  
 R2 17 (5.2) 9 (3.0)   4 (2.8) 6 (4.1)  
Blood loss, mean ± SD, ml 52.7 ± 138.3 18.7 ± 62.0 < 0.001 22.5 ± 72.1 26.8 ± 80.8 0.634
Operation time, mean ± SD, min 349 ± 78 268 ± 62 < 0.001 308 ± 57 304 ± 62 0.598