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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of the entire cohort (n = 2469)

From: The effect of preoperative smoking cessation and smoking dose on postoperative complications following radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a retrospective study of 2469 patients

Variables Smokers (n = 1056) Non-smokers (n = 1413) P value
Gender (male) 1042 (98.7%) 582 (41.1%) < 0.001
Age (years) 57.02 ± 9.37 54.26 ± 11.28 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.87 ± 3.00 21.80 ± 2.98 0.574
ASA score    < 0.001
 1 151 (14.3%) 288 (20.4%)  
 2 789 (74.7%) 975 (69.0%)  
 3 109 (10.3%) 147 (10.4%)  
 4 7 (0.7%) 3 (0.2%)  
Any comorbidities 353 (33.4%) 384 (27.2%) 0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 54 (5.1%) 27 (1.9%) < 0.001
Abdominal surgery history 82 (7.8%) 180 (12.7%) < 0.001
Pulmonary function testa
 Predicted vital capacity (%VC) 87.36 ± 19.45 89.95 ± 20.67 0.004
 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) 87.88 ± 12.49 90.18 ± 10.34 < 0.001
Preoperative albumin (g/L) 38.14 ± 4.59 38.49 ± 4.51 0.056
Preoperative hemoglobin (g/L) 123.62 ± 25.56 115.38 ± 23.34 < 0.001
Complication due to the tumorb 236 (22.3%) 298 (21.1%) 0.452
Operation method    0.539
 Open 808 (76.5%) 1096 (77.6%)  
 Laparoscopy 248 (23.5%) 317 (22.4%)  
Type of resection    0.914
 Proximal subtotal gastrectomy 25 (2.4%) 36 (2.5%)  
 Distal subtotal gastrectomy 779 (73.8%) 1048 (74.2%)  
 Total gastrectomy 252 (23.9%) 329 (23.3%)  
Extent of lymph node dissection    0.364
 ≥ D2 998 (94.5%) 1323 (93.6%)  
 < D2 58 (5.5%) 90 (6.4%)  
Combined multi-organ resection 98 (9.3%) 122 (8.6%) 0.577
Tumor size (cm) 4.15 ± 2.02 4.03 ± 2.12 0.162
Tumor location    < 0.001
 Upper 113 (10.7%) 103 (7.3%)  
 Middle 211 (20.0%) 302 (21.4%)  
 Lower 713 (67.5%) 945 (66.9%)  
 Diffuse 19 (1.8%) 63 (4.5%)  
T stagec    0.032
 T1 196 (18.6%) 297 (21.0%)  
 T2 167 (15.8%) 191 (13.5%)  
 T3 82 (7.8%) 79 (5.6%)  
 T4 611 (57.9%) 846 (59.9%)  
N stagec    0.490
 N0 402 (38.1%) 567 (40.1%)  
 N1 184 (17.4%) 225 (15.9%)  
 N2 208 (19.7%) 257 (18.2%)  
 N3 262 (24.8%) 364 (25.8%)  
pTNM stagec    0.890
 I 272 (25.8%) 376 (26.6%)  
 II 235 (22.2%) 309 (21.9%)  
 III 549 (52.0%) 728 (51.5%)  
Harvested lymph node 22.70 ± 8.95 21.30 ± 8.38 < 0.001
Intraoperative blood loss (mL) 208.51 ± 126.73 199.60 ± 118.58 0.073
Operation time (min) 203.97 ± 54.61 195.77 ± 53.45 < 0.001
Postoperative complicationsd 119 (11.3%) 106 (7.5%) 0.001
Transferring to ICU postoperation 33 (3.1%) 25 (1.8%) 0.028
Postoperative hospital stays (days) 11.78 ± 6.63 11.17 ± 4.46 0.007
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. ASA American Society of Anesthesiology, ICU intensive care unit
  3. aData for 395 patients were missing (130 smokers, 265 non-smokers)
  4. bIncluding pyloric obstruction or bleeding
  5. cTumor stages are based on the 8th edition of AJCC TNM classification
  6. dData are no. of patients (%), patients may have more than one complication