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Table 3 PICOS criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies

From: Laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

Parameter Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Patients • Adults ≥ 18 years undergoing gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma • Patients under 18 years of age
• Patients undergoing gastrectomy for reasons other than gastric adenocarcinoma
Intervention • Laparoscopic or laparoscopically assisted surgery • Hand-assisted surgery
• Robotic surgery
Comparator • Open surgery  
Outcomes • Studies including at least one of the following primary outcome measures:
- Short-term mortality
- Rate of anastomotic leakages
- Postoperative serious adverse events within 30 days after surgery
- Length of hospital stay
- Health-related quality of life within three and 12 months after surgery
• Studies not including at least one of the primary outcome measures
Study design • Randomized controlled trials
• At least 30 days of follow-up
• Trials that are not randomized controlled trials
• Shorter follow-up than 30 days