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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies on tea and coffee consumption and brain cancer risk

From: Association between tea and coffee consumption and brain cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis

Study, year Country Study design Participants (cases) Age (years) Outcome Exposure and category RR (95% CI) Adjustment for covariates
Baglietto et al. 2011 Australia Cohort 39,766 (67) 27–81 Brain glioma Coffee: 4 cups/day or more vs. < 1cup /day 0.51 (0.20–1.13) Adjusted for sex, country of birth, total energy intake from diet, and level of education.
Burch et al. 1987 Canada HBCC 475 (247) 25–80 Brain cancer Coffee: ever vs. never
Tea: ever vs. never
Coffee: 1.26 (0.76–2.09)
Tea: 1.13 (0.73–1.72)
Adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, marital status, and date of diagnosis or death.
Dubrow et al. 2012 USA Cohort 545,771 (904) 50–71 Brain glioma Coffee: ≥6 cups/day vs. none
Tea: > 3 cup/day vs. none
Tea plus coffee: > 5 cup/day vs. none
Coffee: 1.04 (0.70–1.55)
Tea: 0.75 (0.57–1.00)
Tea plus coffee:
0.68 (0.46–1.03)
Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, height, and intake of total energy, fruit, vegetable, and nitrites.
Efird et al. 2004 USA Cohort 133,811 (130) ≥ 25 Brain glioma Coffee: ≥ 7 cups/day vs. < 1 cup/day 1.7 (0.8–3.6) Adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, education, and alcohol.
Hashibe et al. 2015 USA Cohort 97,334 (103) 55–74 Brain glioma Coffee: ≥ 2 cups/day vs. < 1 cup/day
Tea: ≥ 1 cup/day vs. < 1 cup/day
Coffee: 0.76 (0.50–1.17)
Tea: 1.04 (0.65–1.66)
Adjusted for age (continuous), sex, race, and education.
Hochberg et al. 1990 USA PBCC 288 (160) 15–81 Brain glioma Coffee: ≥ 4 cups/day vs. < 1 cup/day 0.9 (0.5–1.8) Adjusted for age, sex, and socio-economic status.
Holick et al. 2010 USA Cohort 230,655 (335) 25–75 Brain glioma Coffee: ≥ 4 cups/day vs. none
Tea: ≥ 8 cups/day vs. none
Tea plus coffee: ≥ 5 cups/ day vs. < 1 cup/day
Coffee: 0.80 (0.54–1.17)
Tea: 0.71 (0.45–1.12)
Tea plus coffee:
0.60 (0.41–0.87)
Adjusted for age, sex, total caloric intake. (Further adjustments for cigarette smoking, current smoking, intake of processed meat, alcohol, fruit and vegetables , and, for women, reproductive factors did not change the risk estimates)
Malmir et al. 2017 Iran HBCC 384 (128) 43.4 ± 14.6 Brain glioma Coffee: T3 vs. T1
Tea: T3 vs. T1
Tea plus coffee: T3 vs. T1
Coffee: 0.09 (0.03–0.24)
Tea: 0.33 (0.13–0.86)
Tea plus coffee:
0.35 (0.15–0.83)
Adjusted for energy intake, physical activity, family history of cancers, family history of glioma, marital status, education, highrisk occupation, high-risk residential area, duration of cell phone use, supplement use, history of exposure to the radiographic X-ray, history of head trauma, history of allergy, history of hypertension, smoking status, exposure to chemicals, drug use, personal hair dye, frequent fried food
intake, frequent use of barbecue, canned foods and microwave, meats and processed meats, legumes and nuts, fruits, salt and interaction effects of tea and coffee consumption, and BMI.
Michaud et al. 2010 France, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK Cohort 521,448 (343) 25–70 Brain glioma Coffee: Q5 vs. Q1
Tea: Q4 vs. Q1
Tea plus coffee: Q5 vs. Q1
Coffee: 0.98 (0.67–1.41)
Tea: 1.05 (0.75–1.48)
Tea plus coffee:
1.02 (0.72–1.44)
Adjusted for age, sex, country, body mass index, smoking status, and education.
Nelson et al. 2012 USA Cohort 8006 (9) 45–68 Brain glioma Coffee: ≥ 4 cups/day vs. none
Tea: ≥ 4 cups/day vs. none
Coffee: 0.89 (0.08–10.02)
Tea: 1.21 (0.22–6.76)
Adjusted for age, education, and triceps skinfold thickness
Ogawa et al. 2016 Japan Cohort 106,324 (157) 40–69 Brain cancer
Brain glioma
Coffee: ≥ 3 cups/day vs. ≤ 4 days/week
Tea: ≥ 3 cups/day vs. ≤ 4 days/week
Brain cancer:
Coffee: 0.48 (0.23–1.00)
Tea: 0.55 (0.17–1.84)
Brain glioma:
Coffee: 1.07 (0.70–1.62)
Tea: 1.05 (0.54–2.05)
Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, pack-years of cigarettes (never and past, 0–20, > 20), alcohol intake (non and past and 1–3 times/month, drinker ≤ 150, 150 g of ethanol per week), green tea (≤ 4 days/week, 1–2 cups/day, ≥ 3 cups/day), and past history of allergy, past history of diabetes mellitus.
  1. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, PBCC population-based case-control studies, HBCC hospital-based case-control studies, T3 tertile 3, T1 tertile 1, Q1 quartile 1, Q4 quartile 4, Q5 quartile 5