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Table 2 Univariate and multivariable analysis of factors associated with BO

From: A nomogram for predicting bowel obstruction in preoperative colorectal cancer patients with clinical characteristics

Patient characteristics Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR 95% CI p value HR 95% CI p value
Gender
 Men 1.087 1.013–1.167 0.020    
 Women 1.000     
Age at diagnosis, years
 66–70 1.818 1.642–2.013 < 0.001 1.737 1.558–1.935 < 0.001
 71–75 1.765 1.605–1.942 1.765 1.596–1.953
 76–80 1.636 1.490–1.796 1.523 1.384–1.677
 ≥ 81 1.000   1.000  
Race
 White 1.000   0.001 1.000   0.004
 Black 0.873 0.783–0.972 0.825 0.738–0.922
 Asian 1.291 1.081–1.542 1.062 0.887–1.271
 Other 0.962 0.800–1.156 0.887 0.737–1.067
Marital status
 Single + separated 1.067 0.945–1.204 < 0.001 1.058 0.936–1.197 < 0.001
 Married 1.369 1.269–1.478 1.115 1.028–1.208
 Divorced + widowed 1.000   1.000  
 Other 0.565 0.468–0.682 0.622 0.514–0.752
Residence location*
 Big metro 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   0.050
 Metro or urban 0.863 0.797–0.933 0.906 0.837–0.981
 Less urban or rural 0.844 0.747–0.955 0.946 0.835–1.072
Median household income
 1st quartile 1.000   0.107    
 2nd quartile 1.066 0.961–1.183    
 3rd quartile 1.081 0.975–1.199    
 4th quartile 1.118 1.009–1.239    
 Unknown 0.929 0.782–1.104    
Level of education
 1st quartile 1.000   0.571    
 2nd quartile 0.996 0.899–1.102    
 3rd quartile 0.993 0.897–1.100    
 4th quartile 0.968 0.873–1.072    
 Unknown 0.872 0.735–1.034    
Tumor characteristics
 T category
  Tis 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  T1 1.532 1.233–1.904 1.434 1.144–1.796
  T2 6.878 5.396–8.768 6.175 4.768–7.997
  T3 8.408 6.855–10.313 7.187 5.738–9.003
  T4a 15.416 11.848–20.059 9.064 6.824–12.039
  T4b 4.566 3.626–5.750 4.466 3.489–5.717
  Unknown 1.559 1.270–1.913 1.562 1.257–1.941
 M category
  M0 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  M1 0.665 0.598–0.738 0.793 0.707–0.889
  Unknown 0.925 0.850–1.007 1.213 1.108–1.328
 Primary tumor site
  Rectum 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  Left-sided colon 2.055 1.881–2.244 2.093 1.892–2.315
  Right-sided colon 1.445 1.326–1.574 1.583 1.432–1.750
 Histologic type
  Adenocarcinoma 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  Mucinous carcinoma 2.368 2.076–2.701 1.593 1.392–1.823
  Signet-ring cell carcinoma 2.096 1.515–2.899 1.220 0.875–1.701
 Histologic grade
  Well 0.771 0.669–0.889 < 0.001 0.842 0.729–0.972 < 0.001
  Moderate 1.000   1.000  
  Poor 1.203 1.090–1.328 1.131 1.022–1.251
  Undifferentiated 0.954 0.652–1.395 0.992 0.676–1.456
  Unknown 0.383 0.350–0.419 0.548 0.498–0.604
 Tumor size, mm
  < 35 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  35–50 1.734 1.526–1.970 1.266 1.110–1.444
  50–65 1.269 1.114–1.446 1.133 0.991–1.295
  ≥ 65 1.543 1.353–1.759 1.253 1.093–1.436
  Unknown 0.419 0.376–0.467 0.616 0.549–0.690
Presenting features
 HCC risk score
  1st quartile 1.000   < 0.001    
  2nd quartile 1.187 1.076–1.309    
  3rd quartile 1.126 1.019–1.245    
  4th quartile 0.913 0.821–1.015    
 History of alcoholism
  No 1.000   0.011 1.000   0.027
  Yes 0.753 0.606–0.937 0.781 0.627–0.973
 Tobacco
  No 1.000   0.385    
  Yes 0.951 0.849–1.065    
 History of colorectal polyps
  No 1.000   0.004    
  Yes 0.850 0.760–0.949    
 Obesity
  No 1.000   0.845    
  Yes 0.987 0.863–1.128    
Treatment
 Chemotherapy
  Nonchemotherapy 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  5-FU/capecitabine 0.758 0.677–0.847 0.752 0.655–0.864
  FOLFOX/CapeOX 0.719 0.561–0.922 0.595 0.459–0.770
  FOLFIRI/XELIRI 0.729 0.559–0.950 0.629 0.480–0.825
  FOLFOX/CapeOX + bevacizumab 0.482 0.360–0.645 0.395 0.292–0.535
  FOLFIRI/XELIRI + bevacizumab 0.921 0.534–1.589 0.980 0.564–1.705
  Other 0.798 0.664–0.958 0.715 0.590–0.867
 Radiotherapy
  No 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   < 0.001
  Yes 0.705 0.637–0.780 0.591 0.514–0.679
Presenting symptoms
 Abdominal pain
  No 1.000   < 0.001    < 0.001
  Yes 1.179 1.087–1.278 1.202 1.105–1.307
 Abdominal mass
  No 1.000   0.025 1.000   0.056
  Yes 1.230 1.026–1.476 1.199 0.996–1.445
 Abdominal distension
  No 1.000   0.381    
  Yes 1.128 0.862–1.476     
 Ascites
  No 1.000   0.497    
  Yes 0.865 0.569–1.315    
 Anemia
  No 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   0.002
  Yes 0.736 0.642–0.845 0.802 0.696–0.923
 Nutritional deficiency
  No 1.000   < 0.001 1.000   0.067
  Yes 0.624 0.513–0.758 0.830 0.680–1.013
 Cachexia
  No 1.000   0.166    
  Yes 0.658 0.364–1.189    
 Change of bowel habit
  No 1.000   0.023    
  Yes 0.798 0.657–0.969    
 Change of character of stool
  No 1.000   0.348    
  Yes 1.043 0.955–1.138    
 Hemorrhage
  No 1.000   < 0.001    
  Yes 0.841 0.769–0.920    
 Diarrhea
  No 1.000   0.458    
  Yes 0.950 0.830–1.088    
 Gatism
  No 1.000   0.183    
  Yes 0.716 0.438–1.170    
 Loss of appetite
  No 1.000   0.002 1.000   0.077
  Yes 0.598 0.431–0.831 0.742 0.533–1.033
 Vomiting
  No 1.000   0.537    
  Yes 0.954 0.820–1.109    
 Weight loss
  No 1.000   0.579    
  Yes 0.965 0.852–1.094    
  1. Abbreviations: BO bowel obstruction, HCC the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service’s Hierarchical Condition Category, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence intervals, 5-FU 5-fluorouracil, FOLFOX 5-FU + oxaliplatin, CapeOX capecitabine + oxaliplatin, FOLFIRI 5-FU + irinotecan, and XELIRI capecitabine + irinotecan. *variable has missing data