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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with CRC stratified by BO

From: A nomogram for predicting bowel obstruction in preoperative colorectal cancer patients with clinical characteristics

Patient characteristics Overall (N%) No BO (N%) BO (N%)
Gender
 Male 5293 (44.8%) 3831 (44.0%) 1462 (47.1%)
 Female 6521 (55.2%) 4879 (56.0%) 1642 (52.9%)
Age at diagnosis, years
 66–70 1525 (12.9%) 966 (11.1%) 559 (18.0%)
 71–75 1975 (16.7%) 1296 (14.9%) 679 (21.9%)
 76–80 2342 (19.8%) 1617 (18.6%) 725 (23.4%)
 > 80 5972 (50.6%) 4831 (55.5%) 1141 (36.8%)
Race
 White 9421 (79.7%) 6945 (79.7%) 2476 (79.8%)
 Black 1566 (13.3%) 1185 (13.6%) 381 (12.3%)
 Asian 372 (3.1%) 244 (2.8%) 128 (4.1%)
 Other 455 (3.9%) 336 (3.9%) 119 (3.8%)
Marital status
 Single + separated 1358 (11.5%) 1023 (11.7%) 335 (10.8%)
 Married 4441 (37.6%) 3015 (34.6%) 1426 (45.9%)
 Divorced + widowed 5296 (44.8%) 4073 (46.8%) 1223 (39.4%)
 Other 719 (6.1%) 599 (6.9%) 120 (3.9%)
Residence location*
 Big metro 6750 (57.2%) 4869 (55.9%) 1881 (60.6%)
 Metro or urban 3814 (32.3%) 2886 (33.1%) 928 (29.9%)
 Less urban or rural 1247 (10.6%) 952 (10.9%) 295 (9.5%)
Median household income
 1st quartile 2781 (23.5%) 2094 (24.0%) 687 (22.1%)
 2nd quartile 2791 (23.6%) 2058 (23.6%) 733 (23.6%)
 3rd quartile 2786 (23.6%) 2037 (23.4%) 749 (24.1%)
 4th quartile 2791 (23.6%) 2015 (23.1%) 776 (25.0%)
 Unknown 665 (5.6%) 506 (5.8%) 159 (5.1%)
Level of education
 1st quartile 2770 (23.4%) 2032 (23.3%) 738 (23.8%)
 2nd quartile 2817 (23.8%) 2068 (23.7%) 749 (24.1%)
 3rd quartile 2798 (23.7%) 2061 (23.7%) 737 (23.7%)
 4th quartile 2762 (23.4%) 2043 (23.5%) 719 (23.2%)
 Unknown 667 (5.6%) 506 (5.8%) 161 (5.2%)
Year of diagnosis
 1992–1996 1228 (10.4%) 758 (8.7%) 470 (15.1%)
 1997–2001 1999 (16.9%) 1478 (17.0%) 521 (16.8%)
 2002–2005 3752 (31.8%) 2796 (32.1%) 956 (30.8%)
 2006–2009 4835 (40.9%) 3678 (42.2%) 1157 (37.3%)
Tumor characteristics
 T category
  Tis 595 (5.0%) 491 (5.6%) 104 (3.4%)
  T1 2054 (17.4%) 1662 (19.1%) 392 (12.6%)
  T2 307 (2.6%) 126 (1.4%) 181 (5.8%)
  T3 1647 (13.9%) 596 (6.8%) 1051 (33.9%)
  T4a 161 (1.4%) 35 (0.4%) 126 (4.1%)
  T4b 717 (6.1%) 457 (5.2%) 260 (8.4%)
  Unknown 6333 (53.6%) 5343 (61.3%) 990 (31.9%)
 M category
  M0 2475 (20.9%) 1686 (19.4%) 789 (25.4%)
  M1 3311 (28.0%) 2684 (30.8%) 627 (20.2%)
  Unknown 6028 (51.0%) 4340 (49.8%) 1688 (54.4%)
 Primary tumor site
  Rectum 4674 (39.6%) 3666 (42.1%) 1008 (32.5%)
  Left-sided colon 2624 (22.2%) 1648 (18.9%) 976 (31.4%)
  Right-sided colon 4516 (38.2%) 3396 (39.0%) 1120 (36.1%)
 Histologic type
  Adenocarcinoma 11,200 (94.8%) 8375 (96.2%) 2825 (91.0%)
  Mucinous carcinoma 523 (4.4%) 281 (3.2%) 242 (7.8%)
  Signet-ring cell carcinoma 91 (0.8%) 54 (0.6%) 37 (1.2%)
 Histologic grade
  Well 724 (6.1%) 509 (5.8%) 215 (6.9%)
  Moderate 5011 (42.4%) 3327 (38.2%) 1684 (54.3%)
  Poor 1488 (12.6%) 973 (11.2%) 515 (16.6%)
  Undifferentiated 96 (0.8%) 69 (0.8%) 27 (0.9%)
  Unknown 4495 (38.0%) 3832 (44.0%) 663 (21.4%)
 Tumor size
  < 35 mm 1134 (9.6%) 693 (8.0%) 441 (14.2%)
  35–50 mm 1039 (8.8%) 522 (6.0%) 517 (16.7%)
  50–65 mm 1241 (10.5%) 760 (8.7%) 481 (15.5%)
  ≥ 65 mm 1103 (9.3%) 639 (7.3%) 464 (14.9%)
  Unknown 7297 (61.8%) 6096 (70.0%) 1201 (38.7%)
Presenting features
 HCC risk score
  1st quartile 2955 (25.0%) 2232 (25.6%) 723 (23.3%)
  2nd quartile 2980 (25.2%) 2079 (23.9%) 901 (29.0%)
  3rd quartile 2917 (24.7%) 2089 (24.0%) 828 (26.7%)
  4th quartile 2962 (25.1%) 2310 (26.5%) 652 (21.0%)
 History of alcoholism
  No 11,390 (96.4%) 8369 (96.1%) 3021 (97.3%)
  Yes 424 (3.6%) 341 (3.9%) 83 (2.7%)
 Tobacco
  No 10,457 (88.5%) 7690 (88.3%) 2767 (89.1%)
  Yes 1357 (11.5%) 1020 (11.7%) 337 (10.9%)
 History of colorectal polyps
  No 10,459 (88.5%) 7710 (88.5%) 2749 (88.6%)
  Yes 1355 (11.5%) 1000 (11.5%) 355 (11.4%)
 Obesity
  No 10,916 (92.4%) 8045 (92.4%) 2871 (92.5%)
  Yes 898 (7.6%) 665 (7.6%) 233 (7.5%)
Treatment
 Chemotherapy
  Nonchemotherapy 9105 (77.1%) 6651 (76.4%) 2454 (79.1%)
  5-FU/capecitabine 1398 (11.8%) 1047 (12.0%) 351 (11.3%)
  FOLFOX/CapeOX 277 (2.3%) 213 (2.4%) 64 (2.1%)
  FOLFIRI/XELIRI 242 (2.0%) 186 (2.1%) 56 (1.8%)
  FOLFOX/CapeOX + bevacizumab 273 (2.3%) 227 (2.6%) 46 (1.5%)
  FOLFIRI/XELIRI + bevacizumab 42 (0.4%) 29 (0.3%) 13 (0.4%)
  Other 477 (4.0%) 357 (4.1%) 120 (3.9%)
 Radiotherapy
  No 9912 (83.9%) 7252 (83.3%) 2660 (85.7%)
  Yes 1902 (16.1%) 1458 (16.7%) 444 (14.3%)
Presenting symptoms
 Abdominal pain
  No 9091 (77.0%) 6773 (77.8%) 2318 (74.7%)
  Yes 2723 (23.0%) 1937 (22.2%) 786 (25.3%)
 Abdominal mass
  No 11,414 (96.6%) 8431 (96.8%) 2983 (96.1%)
  Yes 400 (3.4%) 279 (3.2%) 121 (3.9%)
 Abdominal distension
  No 11,624 (98.4%) 8574 (98.4%) 3050 (98.3%)
  Yes 190 (1.6%) 136 (1.6%) 54 (1.7%)
 Ascites
  No 11,712 (99.1%) 8630 (99.1%) 3082 (99.3%)
  Yes 102 (0.9%) 80 (0.9%) 22 (0.7%)
 Anemia
  No 10,688 (90.5%) 7803 (89.6%) 2885 (92.9%)
  Yes 1126 (9.5%) 907 (10.4%) 219 (7.1%)
 Nutritional deficiency
  No 11,152 (94.4%) 8153 (93.6%) 2999 (96.6%)
  Yes 662 (5.6%) 557 (6.4%) 105 (3.4%)
 Cachexia
  No 11,742 (99.4%) 8649 (99.3%) 3093 (99.6%)
  Yes 72 (0.6%) 61 (0.7%) 11 (0.4%)
 Change of bowel habits
  No 11,394 (96.4%) 8395 (96.4%) 2999 (96.6%)
  Yes 420 (3.6%) 315 (3.6%) 105 (3.4%)
 Change of character of stool
  No 9536 (80.7%) 7064 (81.1%) 2472 (79.6%)
  Yes 2278 (19.3%) 1646 (18.9%) 632 (20.4%)
 Hemorrhage
  No 9366 (79.3%) 6859 (78.7%) 2507 (80.8%)
  Yes 2448 (20.7%) 1851 (21.3%) 597 (19.2%)
 Diarrhea
  No 10,899 (92.3%) 8022 (92.1%) 2877 (92.7%)
  Yes 915 (7.7%) 688 (7.9%) 227 (7.3%)
 Gatism
  No 11,728 (99.3%) 8640 (99.2%) 3088 (99.5%)
  Yes 86 (0.7%) 70 (0.8%) 16 (0.5%)
 Loss of appetite
  No 11,569 (97.9%) 8501 (97.6%) 3068 (98.8%)
  Yes 245 (2.1%) 209 (2.4%) 36 (1.2%)
 Vomiting
  No 11,066 (93.7%) 8142 (93.5%) 2924 (94.2%)
  Yes 748 (6.3%) 568 (6.5%) 180 (5.8%)
 Weight loss
  No 10,672 (90.3%) 7838 (90.0%) 2834 (91.3%)
  Yes 1142 (9.7%) 872 (10.0%) 270 (8.7%)
  1. Abbreviations: CRC colorectal cancer, BO bowel obstruction, HCC the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service’s Hierarchical Condition Category, 5-FU 5-fluorouracil, FOLFOX 5-FU + oxaliplatin, CapeOX capecitabine + oxaliplatin, FOLFIRI 5-FU + irinotecan, and XELIRI capecitabine + irinotecan. *variable has missing data