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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study patients

From: Risk factors of lateral lymph node metastasis in cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma

    With LLN metastasis  
   Total Yes No P
Subjects, n   783 371 412
Gender Male 207 (26.4) 115 (31.0) 92 (22.3) 0.006
  Female 576 (73.6) 256 (69.0) 320 (77.7)  
Age at diagnosis, years   42.4 ± 13.1 41.0 ± 13.7 43.8 ± 12.3 0.005
Age group, years ≤ 45 473 (60.0) 242 (65.2) 231 (56.1) 0.009
  > 45 310 (40.0) 129 (34.8) 181 (43.9)  
Tumor size, mm   17.2 ± 11.1 20.8 ± 12.2 14.0 ± 9.0 0.001
Tumor size group ≤ 10 306 (39.1) 94 (25.3) 212 (51.5) 0.001
  10–20 315 (40.0) 161 (43.4) 154 (37.4)  
  > 20 162 (20.9) 116 (31.3) 46 (11.1)  
Tumor location Upper lobe 173 (22.1) 105 (28.3) 68 (16.5) 0.001a
  Middle lobe 345 (44.1) 155 (41.8) 190 (46.1)  
  Lower lobe 217 (27.7) 75 (20.2) 142 (34.4)  
  Isthmus 19 (2.4) 11 (3.0) 8 (2.0)  
  Whole 29 (3.7) 25 (6.7) 4 (1.0)  
ETE Yes 157 (20.1) 96 (25.9) 61 (14.8) 0.001
  No 626 (79.9) 275 (74.1) 351 (85.2)  
Multifocality Yes 94 (12.0) 54 (14.6) 40 (9.7) 0.037
  No 689 (88.0) 317 (85.4) 372 (90.3)  
Bilaterality Yes 131 (16.7) 75 (20.2) 56 (13.6) 0.013
  No 652 (83.3) 296 (79.8) 356 (86.4)  
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Yes 92 (11.7) 46 (12.4) 46 (11.2) 0.592
  No 691 (88.3) 325 (87.6) 366 (88.8)  
CLN metastases < 2 383 (48.9) 96 (25.9) 287 (69.7) 0.001
  ≥ 2 400 (51.1) 275 (74.1) 125 (30.3)  
  1. Reported as n (%), unless noted otherwise. P values represent the statistically difference between the groups with and without LLN metastasis, unless noted otherwise
  2. aThe P value means the difference among the upper lobe, middle lobe, lower lobe, isthmus, and hole thyroid lobe