Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Main analysis for the direction, clinical relevance, and duration of change in 24 HRQL outcomes after MIE

From: The change of health-related quality of life after minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

HRQL outcome HRQL change at 3-month follow-up HRQL change at 3-, 6–12-,and/or 24 month follow-ups
Number of patients (Groups) Amount of heterogeneity Direction of HRQL change§,¶ Clinical relevance of HRQL change\\,†† Direction of HRQL change§,¶,‡‡ Duration of HRQL change§§
Physical function 1753 (3) Substantial Deterioration Unclear Deterioration Unclear
Role function 919 (3) Considerable Deterioration Unclear Unclear Unclear
Emotional function 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear No change No change
Cognitive function 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Social function 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Global QoL 1753 (3) Moderate Deterioration Small Deterioration 6 months
Dyspnea 1753 (3) Substantial Increase Unclear Increase Unclear
Pain 1753 (3) Substantial Increase Unclear Increase Unclear
Fatigue 1753 (3) Substantial Increase Unclear Increase Unclear
Insomnia 919 (3) Low Increase Small Increase >12 months¶¶
Anorexia 919 (3) Considerable Increase Unclear Unclear Unclear
Nausea and Vomiting 919 (3) Considerable Increase Unclear Unclear Unclear
Constipation 919 (3) Low Increase Trivial Increase 12 months
Diarrhea 919 (3) Considerable Increase Unclear Increase Unclear
Financial 169 (2) Low Increase Small N/A N/A
Dysphagia 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Eating Problem 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Reflux 804 (2) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Pain-OES18 804 (2) Substantial Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Swallowing problem 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Dry mouth 919 (3) Substantial Increase Unclear Unclear Unclear
Taste problem 919 (3) Considerable Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
Cough problem 919 (3) Considerable Increase Unclear Increase Unclear
Speech problem 919 (3) Moderate Increase Small Increase 12 months
  1. The number of patients included at baseline and the number of patients included at 3-month follow-up, combined
  2. We used the I2 statistic to describe the percentage of inconsistency attributable to heterogeneity and not chance. An I2 of <30% represents low heterogeneity, 30–50% moderate, 50–75% substantial, and 75–100% considerable heterogeneity
  3. §The direction of HRQL change was clear if the estimate was “sufficiently” homogenous (i.e., χ2 P ≥ 0.1 and I2 low or moderate) or, when the estimate was not “sufficiently” homogenous, if both the summary estimate and confidence intervals reported the same direction [e.g., − 5,00 (− 10,00; − 2,00)]
  4. For functioning scores, “deterioration” indicates that the follow-up scores were lower than baseline scores. For symptom scales, “increase” indicates that the follow-up scores were higher than baseline scores
  5. \\The clinical relevance of HRQL change was clear if the estimate was “sufficiently” homogenous (i.e., χ2 P ≥ 0.1 and I2 low or moderate)
  6. ††A large change indicates a clear clinical relevance. A medium change indicates a clinical relevance, but to a lesser extent. A small change indicates a subtle but nevertheless clinically relevant effect. A trivial change indicates either a change of unlikely clinical relevance, or no change
  7. ‡‡The direction of HRQL change was clear if at least three estimates of change were obtained, two of which were “sufficiently” homogenous (i.e., χ2 P ≥ 0.1 and I2 low or moderate), and if the summary estimates showed the same direction of change. If none of the estimates were “sufficiently” homogenous, we determined that the direction of HRQL change was clear if the summary estimates and confidence intervals at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups showed the same direction of change [e.g., − 5,00 (− 10,00; − 2,00)]
  8. §§The duration of HRQL change was clear if at least three estimates of HRQL change were obtained (e.g., at 3-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups). Two of these estimates had to be “sufficiently” homogenous (i.e., χ2 P ≥ 0.1 and I2 low or moderate)
  9. The duration of HRQL change lasted longer if the clinical relevance of the last sufficiently homogenous estimate was not trivial or if subsequent estimates were not “sufficiently homogenous”