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Table 4 Change in 24 HRQL outcomes after MIE at 3,6,12 and 24 months follow-up

From: The change of health-related quality of life after minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

  Baseline vs. 3 months Baseline vs. 6 months Baseline vs. 12 months Baseline vs. 24 months
Patients MD Heterogeneity Patients MD Heterogeneity Patients MD Heterogeneity Patients MD Heterogeneity
(groups) (clinical relevance) Tau2 Chi 2 I2(%) (groups) (clinical relevance) Tau2 Chi 2 I2(%) (groups) (clinical relevance) Tau2 Chi 2 I2(%) (groups) (clinical relevance) Tau2 Chi 2 I2(%)
Physical function 1753 -14.36 [-11.77, -16.95] 2.88 P=0.09 58 1841 -9.32 [-5.36, -13.28] 11.17 P=0.001 81 1787 -7.42 [-4.80, -10.03] 3.29 P=0.10 53 1489 -4.31 [-3.27, -5.36] 1.87 P=0.17 46
3 Medium     4 Small     4 Small     2 Trivial    
Role function 919 -18.55 [-3.14, -33.97] 175.01 P<0.00001 95 1007 -10.01 [3.93, -23.94] 187.29 P<0.00001 95 899 -9.07 [0.04, -18.18] 48.02 P=0.01 77 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Medium     4 Small     3 Small         
Emotional function 919 0.83 [8.45, -6.79] 36.33 P=0.003 82 1007 3.47 [8.88, -1.94] 19.65 P=0.02 68 899 2.05 [6.05, -1.95] 1.78 P=0.32 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Trivial     4 Trivial     3 Trivial         
Cognitive function 919 -3.78 [4.16, -11.71] 41.8 P=0.0003 88 1007 -2.02 [5.32, -9.36] 46.43 P<0.0001 87 899 -4.14 [2.29, -10.57] 19.97 P=0.07 62 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     4 Small     3 Small         
Social function 919 -11.31 [4.43, -27.05] 183.61 P<0.00001 95 1007 -4.38 [8.20, -16.97] 149.24 P<0.00001 93 911 -6.56 [2.03, -15.14] 41.72 P=0.02 75 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Medium     4 Trivial     3 Trivial         
Global QoL 1753 -7.26 [-5.88, -8.64] 3.85 P=0.15 48 1740 -4.94 [-2.95, -6.94] 1.04 P=0.25 28 1758 -0.52 [4.67, -5.72] 21.2 P=0.0002 85 1489 0.11 [1.58, -1.36] 1.37 P=0.24 27
3 Small     3 Trivial     4 Trivial     2 Trivial    
Dyspnea 1753 -12.06 [-15.97, -8.15] 7.67 P=0.02 74 1740 -10.48 [-15.13, -5.84] 12.28 P=0.003 83 1692 -8.98 [-13.20, -4.76] 9.56 P=0.01 77 1489 -6.37 [-7.23, -5.52] 2.87 P=0.09 65
3 Medium     3 Small     3 Small     2 Small    
Pain 1753 -13.85 [-17.30, -10.40] 5.81 P=0.05 67 1845 -11.36 [-14.48, -8.23] 4.82 P=0.09 53 1853 -5.04 [-10.96, 0.87] 33.42 P<0.00001 86 1489 -5.76 [-12.71, 1.18] 23.29 P=0.0003 92
3 Medium     4 Small     5 Small     2 Small    
Fatigue 1753 -20.60 [-24.12, -17.08] 5.74 P=0.06 64 1841 -13.68 [-19.58, -7.78] 26.49 P=0.0001 86 1787 -9.27 [-15.27, -3.27] 27.38 P=0.0001 85 1489 -6.48 [-10.74, -2.21] 7.79 P=0.02 80
3 Large     4 Medium     4 Small     2 Small    
Insomnia 919 -7.64 [-11.52, -3.76] 2.53 P=0.28 21 906 -4.48 [-8.34, -0.63]   P=0.22 35 852 -5.82 [-10.08, -1.56] 0.05 P=0.82 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     3 Small     2 Small         
Anorexia 919 -18.36 [-32.27, -4.45] 129.55 P=0.0005 87 1007 -6.71 [-16.85, 3.43 87.85 P=0.0002 85 899 -4.29 [-9.73, 1.15] 8.92 P=0.21 36 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Medium     4 Small     3 Small         
Nausea and Vomiting 919 -10.43 [-19.51, -1.35] 56.71 P<0.0001 91 1007 -6.06 [-13.10, 0.97] 41.88 P<0.0001 86 899 -5.20 [-12.20, 1.81] 28.32 P=0.02 75 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     4 Small     3 Trivial         
Constipation 919 -4.27 [-7.21, -1.33] 1.48 P=0.48 0 1243 -5.42 [-8.26, -2.58] 3.22 P=0.20 38 804 -3.10 [-6.31, 0.10]   P=0.90 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Trivial     3 Small     2 Trivial         
Diarrhea 919 -12.42 [-20.99, -3.85] 43.7 P=0.01 77 906 -13.44 [-23.53, -3.34] 65.62 P=0.002 84 804 -12.69 [-15.97, -9.41]   P=0.40 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     3 Small     2 Small         
Financial 169 -7.18 [-13.71, -0.65] 1.06 P=0.30 6 167 -6.51 [-13.31, 0.29]   P=0.24 29 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
2 Small     2 Small              
Dysphagia § 919 6.70 [-17.38, 30.77] 440.55 P<0.00001 98 1007 7.11 [-12.89, 27.10] 398.73 P<0.00001 97 899 -4.51 [-14.17, 5.14] 57.58 P=0.005 81 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     4 Small     3 Trivial         
Eating Problem § 919 -5.85 [-34.21, 22.50] 616.02 P<0.00001 98 1007 -0.94 [-21.86, 19.97] 440.12 P<0.00001 97 899 -3.51 [-12.05, 5.04] 43.43 P=0.01 78 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     4 Trivial     3 Trivial         
Reflux § 804 -14.01 [-39.88, 11.86] 339.53 P<0.00001 97 915 -5.21 [-19.44, 9.01] 148.13 P<0.00001 95 788 -3.25 [-6.87, 0.37]   P=0.72 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
2 Medium     3 Trivial     2 Trivial         
Pain-OES18 § 804 0.46 [-3.91, 4.84] 6.49 P=0.09 64 896 2.13 [-2.65, 6.92] 11.24 P=0.05 66 788 0.31 [-3.08, 3.69] 1.14 P=0.29 9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
2 Trivial     3 Trivial     2 Trivial         
Swallowing problem § 919 -6.36 [-14.87, 2.15] 45.68 P=0.003 83 906 -5.05 [-13.39, 3.29] 43.04 0.005 81 804 -6.40 [-17.92, 5.12] 61.41 P=0.004 88 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     3 Small     2 Trivial         
Dry mouth § 919 -5.82 [-11.64, -0.01] 13.73 P=0.13 51 906 -5.66 [-12.38, 1.06] 22.69 P=0.06 65 804 -9.19 [-13.24, -5.13]   P=0.30 5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     3 Small     2 Small         
Taste problem § 919 -10.26 [-26.13, 5.61] 181.5 P<0.00001 93 906 -6.75 [-16.15, 2.65] 54.91 P=0.006 81 804 -8.42 [-12.46, -4.38]   P=0.28 14 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Medium     3 Small     2 Small         
Cough problem § 919 -15.35 [-25.20, -5.50] 56.49 P=0.02 76 906 -12.05 [-23.21, -0.88] 78.64 P=0.004 82 804 -11.01 [-18.89, -3.13] 19.56 P=0.13 55 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Medium     3 Medium     2 Medium         
Speech problem § 919 -9.94 [-12.68, -7.20]   P=0.15 48 906 -8.45 [-11.07, -5.84] 1.9 P=0.39 0 870 -3.16 [-9.25, 2.92] 17.59 P=0.08 60 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 Small     3 Small     3 Trivial         
  1. N/A not applicable (this means that no two patient groups were available to derive a summary estimate of HRQL change by meta-analysis)
  2. MD Mean difference / mean change
  3. The amount of patients in each analysis are the number of patients at baseline and the given follow-up time (e.g., the number of patients at 3 months follow-up represent the number of patients at baseline and the number of patients at 3 months follow-up, combined).
  4. Mean difference; measured by the QLQ-C30
  5. §Mean difference; measured by the QLQ-OES18
  6. 'Sufficiently' homogenous estimates are presented in bold (I2 ≤50% AND P≥ 0.1)