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Table 1 Comparison of clinicopathological data for patients classified into four groups

From: Prognostic significance of microvascular invasion in tumor stage for hepatocellular carcinoma

  Total (n = 676) Group A (N = 335) Group B (N = 193) Group C (N = 103) Group D (N = 45) P value
Gender       0.28
 Male 530 (78.4%) 260 (77.6%) 146 (75.6%) 85 (82.5%) 39 (86.7%)  
 Female 146 (21.6%) 75 (22.4%) 47 (24.4%) 18 (17.5%) 6 (13.3%)  
Ages (years) 52.3 ± 10.2 52.7 ± 10.0 52.1 ± 10.7 51.4 ± 10.5 51.7 ± 9.4 0.244
Hepatitis B surface antigen      0.171
 Negative 141 (21.5%) 76 (23.2%) 43 (23.2%) 17 (17.0%) 5 (11.1%)  
 Positive 516 (78.5%) 251 (76.8%) 142 (76.8%) 83 (83.0%) 40 (88.9%)  
Hepatitis C antibody      0.351
 Negative 593 (94.0%) 293 (93.3%) 166 (93.3%) 91 (94.8%) 43 (100.0%)  
 Positive 38 (6.0%) 21 (6.7%) 12 (6.7%) 5 (5.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
Platelet count (× 1000/uL) 170 ± 81 157 ± 75 174 ± 82 187 ± 85 204 ± 96 < 0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 1.0 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 1.3 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 0.49
Serum albumin (g/dL) 4.0 ± 0.5 4.0 ± 0.5 3.9 ± 0.5 4.0 ± 0.4 3.8 ± 0.5 0.368
Serum total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.9 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 1.9 0.9 ± 1.0 0.9 ± 0.5 0.587
Serum AST (U/L) 59.5 ± 66.4 50.9 ± 40.5 69.6 ± 102.9 57.3 ± 37.0 85.1 ± 65.2 0.002
Serum ALT (U/L) 56.1 ± 59.8 54.2 ± 48.3 59.9 ± 84.0 50.7 ± 38.2 66.7 ± 52.8 0.471
Prothrombin time (seconds) 12.4 ± 1.4 12.5 ± 1.4 12.5 ± 1.6 12.1 ± 1.3 12.8 ± 1.4 0.587
ICG-R15 (%) 14.9 ± 9.8 15.4 ± 9.9 13.7 ± 7.9 15.8 ± 13.2 14.3 ± 8.5 0.608
Child–Turcotte–Pugh classification      0.062
 A 623 (92.6%) 317 (95.2%) 170 (88.5%) 94 (91.3%) 42 (93.3%)  
 B 36 (5.3%) 9 (2.7%) 16 (8.3%) 8 (7.8%) 3 (6.7%)  
 C 14 (2.1%) 7 (2.1%) 6 (3.1%) 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Alpha-fetoprotein (ng/mL) 3705.9 ± 10,891.1 913.7 ± 4020.0 4598.0 ± 11,355.1 7336.6 ± 16,371.8 12,966.7 ± 18,814.6 < 0.001
Preoperative TACE       0.086
 No 413 (64.0%) 195 (60.7%) 126 (69.6%) 68 (68.7%) 24 (54.5%)  
 Yes 232 (40.0%) 126 (39.3%) 55 (30.4%) 31 (31.3%) 20 (45.5%)  
Types of hepatic resection       < 0.001
 Major 262 (38.7%) 87 (26.0%) 77 (39.9%) 57 (55.4%) 41 (91.1%)  
 Sectionectomy 184 (27.2%) 104 (31.0%) 45 (23.3%) 33 (31.7%) 2 (4.4%)  
 Segmentectomy or less 230 (34.1%) 144 (43.0%) 71 (36.8%) 13 (12.9%) 2 (4.4%)  
Size of the tumor (cm) 5.4 ± 3.9 3.9 ± 2.9 6.1 ± 4.2 7.2 ± 3.7 9.5 ± 4.2 < 0.001
Tumor number       0.001
 Single 536 (79.3%) 287 (85.7%) 142 (73.6%) 76 (73.8%) 31 (68.9%)  
 Multiple 140 (20.7%) 48 (14.3%) 51 (26.4%) 27 (26.2%) 14 (31.1%)  
Portal vein invasion       < 0.001
 Negative 537 (79.4%) 335 (100.0%) 193 (100.0%) 7 (6.8%) 2 (4.4%)  
 Positive 139 (20.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 96 (93.2%) 43 (95.6%)  
Hepatic vein invasion       < 0.001
 Negative 647 (95.7%) 335 (100.0%) 193 (100.0%) 89 (86.4%) 30 (66.7%)  
 Positive 29 (4.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 14 (13.6%) 15 (33.3%)  
Microvascular invasion       < 0.001
 Negative 348 (51.5%) 335 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 9 (6.9%) 4 (4.7%)  
 Positive 328 (48.5%) 0 (0.0%) 193 (100.0%) 94 (93.1%) 41 (95.3%)  
Intrahepatic metastasis       < 0.001
 Negative 452 (66.9%) 265 (79.1%) 124 (64.2%) 48 (46.6%) 15 (33.3%)  
 Positive 224 (33.1%) 70 (20.9%) 69 (35.8%) 55 (53.4%) 30 (66.7%)  
Histologic grading by Edmondson and Steiner’s classification     < 0.001
 Negative 379 (60.7%) 227 (78.3%) 88 (46.1%) 46 (46.0%) 18 (41.9%)  
 Positive 245 (39.3%) 63 (21.7%) 103 (53.9%) 54 (54.0%) 25 (58.1%)  
Microscopic resection margin       < 0.001
 Negative 589 (87.9%) 312 (93.7%) 170 (89.0%) 79 (77.5%) 28 (63.6%)  
 Positive 81 (12.1%) 21 (6.3%) 21 (11.0%) 23 (22.5%) 16 (36.4%)  
Cirrhosis       0.346
 Negative 296 (47.0%) 141 (44.8%) 93 (50.8%) 47 (50.5%) 15 (38.5%)  
 Positive 334 (53.0%) 174 (55.2%) 90 (49.2%) 46 (49.5%) 24 (61.5%)  
AJCC TNM stage       < 0.001
 I 260 (38.4%) 265 (79.1%) 2 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
 II 244 (36.1%) 40 (11.9%) 142 (73.6%) 65 (63.1%) 0 (0.0%)  
 III-A 62 (9.2%) 14 (4.2%) 26 (13.5%) 24 (23.3%) 0 (0.0%)  
 III-B 50 (7.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 38 (84.4%)  
 III-C 54 (8.0%) 15 (4.5%) 21 (10.9%) 12 (11.7%) 6 (13.3%)  
 IV-A 6 (0.9%) 1 (0.3%) 2 (1.0%) 2 (1.9%) 1 (2.2%)  
LCSGJ TNM stage       < 0.001
 I 78 (11.8%) 67 (20.6%) 11 (5.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
 II 329 (49.8%) 207 (63.7%) 114 (59.1%) 5 (5.1%) 3 (6.7%)  
 III 183 (27.7%) 51 (15.7%) 63 (32.6%) 54 (55.1%) 15 (33.3%)  
 IV 71 (10.7%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (2.6%) 39 (39.8%) 27 (60.0%)  
  1. Group A no microvascular invasion (McVI) or gross vascular invasion (VI), Group B McVI without gross VI, Group C VI confined to segmental/sectional branches, Group D gross VI within/beyond major vascular branches, ICG-R15 indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min, TACE transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, AJCC TNM American Joint Committee on Cancer Tumor Node Metastasis, LCSGJ the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan