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Table 1 Comparison of urachal carcinoma staging systems

From: Surgical treatment of recurrent urachal carcinoma with liver metastasis: a case report and literature review

Stage Sheldon Mayo clinic
I Confined to the urachal mucosa Confined to the urachus and/or the bladder
II Invasion confined to the urachus itself Extension beyond the muscular layer of the urachus and/or the bladder
III   Metastases to the regional lymph nodes
IIIA Extension to the bladder  
IIIB Extension to the abdominal wall
IIIC Extension to the peritoneum
IIID Extension to the viscera other than the bladder
IV   Metastases to non-regional lymph nodes or other distant sites
IVA Metastases to the lymph nodes  
IVB Metastases to distant sites