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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Optimized total thoracoscopic and laparoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer

  Optimized TLE procedure (n = 30)
Age (years), mean ± SD 65.63 ± 3.71
Sex  
 Male 21 (70 %)
 Female 9 (30 %)
Comorbidity  
 Hypertension 3 (10 %)
 Diabetes mellitus 2 (6.7 %)
 COPD 1 (3.3 %)
 Lacunar infarction 2 (6.7 %)
ASA score  
 1 2 (6.7 %)
 2 28 (93.3 %)
pStage  
 I 2 (6.7 %)
 IIa 4 (13.3 %)
 IIb 6 (20.0 %)
 IIIa 11 (36.7 %)
 IIIb 7 (23.3 %)
Tumor location  
 Upper 16 (53.4 %)
 Middle 13 (43.3 %)
 Lower 1 (3.3 %)
Histology  
 Squamous carcinoma 28 (93.3 %)
 Adenocarcinoma 2 (6.7 %)
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease