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Table 2 Summary of the literature: RBM3 studies in human cancers

From: Evaluation of RNA-binding motif protein 3 expression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: an immunohistochemical study

Author, year (ref no.) Tumor type Overall results (may include methods additional to IHC) IHC quantification method Data adjustment for analysis
Jonsson et al., 2011 [2] Melanoma RBM3 is down-regulated in metastatic melanoma, and high nuclear RBM3 expression in the primary tumor is an independent marker of a prolonged OS. Qualitative: when present, RBM3 was expressed in >75 % of the cells, so only the intensity of the staining was scored (0–3). Samples with scores 0, 1, and 2 pooled together and compared to samples with score 3.
Ehlen et al., 2010 [3] Ovarian cancer RBM3 expression is associated with cisplatin sensitivity in vitro and with a good prognosis. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 3 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, and moderate-strong). None.
Jonsson et al., 2011 [4] Prostate cancer High RBM3 nuclear expression in prostate cancer is associated with a prolonged time to disease progression. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 4 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, moderate, and strong). RBM3 nuclear score was dichotomized into weak vs strong using classification and regression tree analysis (survival analyses).
Jogi et al., 2009 [5] Breast cancer Increased nuclear expression of RBM3 was associated with a prolonged overall and recurrence-free survival. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 4 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, moderate, and strong). RBM3 nuclear score was dichotomized into <75 vs >75 % positive nuclear staining (calculated optimal cutoff).
Nodin et al., 2012 [6] Melanoma RBM3 expression is an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival but not disease-free survival in the multivariable model. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 4 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, moderate, and strong). RBM3 nuclear score was dichotomized into low vs high.
Ehlen et al., 2011 [7] Ovarian cancer Association between RBM3 expression and several cellular processes involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 3 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, and moderate-strong). RBM3 nuclear score was dichotomized into low vs high.
Boman et al., 2013 [18] Urothelial bladder cancer Loss of RBM3 expression is associated with clinically more aggressive tumors and an independent factor of poor prognosis. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 4 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, moderate, and strong). RBM3 nuclear score was trichotomized into negative, intermediate, and high (survival analyses) and dichotomized into negative vs positive or negative-intermediate vs high (relative risk of progression or death from disease analyses).
Zhang et al., 2013 [20] Astrocytoma RBM3 overexpression may serve as an important molecular mechanism underlying astrocytic carcinogenesis and may have proliferative and/or proto-oncogenic functions. Qualitative only: negative, weakly positive, moderately positive, and strongly positive. None.
Grupp et al., 2014 [22] Prostate cancer High RBM3 expression is an independent poor prognostic marker in prostate cancer. Qualitative: scores combining the staining intensity and the fraction of positive tumor cells (negative, weak, moderate, and strong). None.
Jonsson et al., 2014 [23] Esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas High expression of RBM3 independently predicts a reduced risk of recurrence and death. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 3 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, and moderate-strong). None for the comparison of RBM3 expression in various benign, malignant, and metastatic tissues. RBM3 nuclear score was dichotomized into low and high (survival analyses).
Olofsson et al., 2015 [24] Testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) Low RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of treatment failure in metastatic NSGCT. Semi-quantitative (combined nuclear score): 4 scores for nuclear fraction (0–1 %, 2–25 %, 26–75 %, and >75 %) and 3 scores for nuclear staining intensity (negative, intermediate, and moderate-strong). RBM3 nuclear score was dichotomized into weak vs strong using classification and regression tree analysis (survival analyses).