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Table 2 Subgroup analyses of odds ratios for the association between fiber intake and risk of prostate cancer

From: No association between fiber intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Outcome of interest No. of studies OR (95 % CI) p heterogenity I 2 (%) p for interaction
Total dietary fiber 17 0.89 (0.77, 1.01) 0.005 53.6  
Study design
 Cohort 5 0.94 (0.77, 1.11) 0.004 74.3 0.202
 Case-control 12 0.82 (0.68, 0.96) 0.277 17.0  
Study quality
 Low 8 0.73 (0.56, 0.90) 0.335 12.2 0.033
 High 9 0.96 (0.83, 1.08) 0.04 51.7  
Geographical region
 Europe 7 0.90 (0.71, 1.09) 0.01 63.5 0.937
 North America 6 0.90 (0.64, 1.16) 0.059 53.1  
 Japan 2 0.95 (0.72, 1.17) 0.41 0  
Assessment
 Interview 11 0.94 (0.79, 1.10) 0.313 13.8 0.931
 Questionnaire 4 0.93 (0.76, 1.09) 0.02 69.7  
Family history      
 Yes 8 0.84 (0.62, 1.05) 0.002 69.4 0.44
 No 9 0.94 (0.81, 1.08) 0.187 29.0  
BMI
 Yes 8 0.87 (0.66, 1.08) 0.001 70.3 0.695
 No 9 0.92 (0.79, 1.06) 0.21 26.4  
Energy intake
 Yes 14 0.91 (0.78, 1.04) 0.007 55.1 0.507
 No 3 0.81 (0.54, 1.07) 0.14 49.2  
Multiple confoundersa
 Yes 6 0.82 (0.54, 1.09) 0.306 14.4 0.387
 No 11 0.95 (0.84, 1.05) <0.001 77.7  
Tumor stage
 Local 3 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 0.24 30.5 0.562
 Advanced 4 0.93 (0.79, 1.07) 0.24 29.3  
Source of intake
 Cereal fiber 3 1.05 (0.94, 1.16) 0.52 0 0.02
 Fruit fiber 3 0.92 (0.81, 1.03) 0.55 0  
 Vegetable fiber 3 0.87 (0.53, 1.21) 0.001 84.8  
 Legume fiber 1 0.55 (0.32, 0.95) NA NA  
Solubility
 Soluble fiber 2 0.87 (0.52, 1.22) 0.13 57.2 0.777
 Insoluble fiber 3 0.80 (0.46, 1.13) 0.005 81.0  
  1. aMultiple confounders refer to effect estimates adjusted for at least family history, BMI, and energy intake