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Table 1 Study characteristics of published cohort and case-control studies on dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer

From: No association between fiber intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Authors and publication year Study design Country Study period Cases/subjects Exposure range RR (95 % CI) Variables of adjustment Study qualitya Other variables evaluated Assessment
Oishi et al. 1988 [26] HCC Japan 1981–1984 100/200 Ever vs. none 0.78 (0.45–1.37) Age 5 None Interview FFQ (31 items)
Walker et al. 1992 [27] PCC South Africa 1998–1990 166/332 ≥15 vs. <15 g/day 0.6 (0.4–1.0) Age 6 None Interview FFQ (unknown items)
Andersson et al. [35] PCC Sweden 1989–1994 526/1062 The highest quartile (≥25.9 g/day) vs. the lowest (<15.9 g/day) 0.82 (0.58–1.15) Age, energy 6 Advanced prostate cancer Interview and self-administered questionnaire FFQ (68 items)
Vlajinac et al. 1997 [28] HCC Serbia 1990–1994 101/303 The highest tertile vs. the lowest 4.02 (1.38–11.73) Age, residence, energy, protein, fat total, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, total sugar, retinol, retinol equivalent, a-tocopherol, folic acid, vitamin B12, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron 6 None Interview FFQ (150 items)
Deneo-Pellegrini et al. 1999 [29] HCC Uruguay 1993–1997 175/408 The highest quartile (≥27.2 g/day) vs. the lowest (<18.2 g/day) 1.5 (0.8–2.6) Age, residence, urban/rural status, education, family history of prostate cancer, BMI, and total energy intake 6 None Interview FFQ (64 items)
Ramon et al. 2000 [30] HCC Spain 1994–1998 270/704 The highest quartile (≥39.5 g/day) vs. the lowest (<13.1 g/day) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) Age, residence, family history of prostate cancer, BMI, and energy intake 8 None Interview FFQ (141 items)
Lu et al. 2001 [31] PCC USA 1993–1997 65/197 The highest quartile (≥13.7 g/day) vs. the lowest (<7.9 g/day) 1.81 (0.55–5.96) Age, race, education, alcohol drinking, pack-years of smoking, family history of prostate cancer, and total dietary caloric intake 8 None Interview FFQ (98 items)
Pelucchi et al. 2004 [32] HCC Italy 1991–2002 1294/1745 The highest quintile (≥21.1 g/day) vs. the lowest (<12.3 g/day) 0.93 (0.71–1.22) Age, study center, education, family history of prostate cancer, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and total energy intake 7 Insoluble fiber, cellulose, vegetable fiber, fruit fiber, grain fiber. Interview FFQ (78 items)
McCann et al. 2005 [33] PCC USA 1986–1991 433/971 The highest quartile (>38 g/day) vs. the lowest ≤15 g/day 1.21 (0.73–2.01) Age, education, BMI, cigarette smoking status, and total energy 7 None Interview FFQ (172 items)
Walker et al. 2005 [34] HCC Canada 1997–1999 80/414 The highest tertile vs. the lowest 1.10 (0.58–2.07) Age, alcohol, energy, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, protein, and cholesterol intake 6 None Interview FFQ (66 items)
Lewis et al. 2009 [36] HCC USA 1998–2004 478/860 The highest tertile (≥20.7 g/day) vs. the lowest (<13.7 g/day) 0.56 (0.35–0.89) Age, education, BMI, smoking history, family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives, and total caloric intake 6 None Self-administered questionnaire FFQ (100 items)
Suzuki et al. 2009 [9] Cohort Europe 1993–2007 2747/142,590 The highest quintile (≥30.4 g/day) vs. the lowest (<17.8 g/day) 1.02 (0.87–1.19) Age, energy intake, height, weight, smoking, education, and marital status 8 Vegetables fiber, fruit fiber, cereal fiber
Local, advanced, low-grade, and high-grade prostate cancer
 
Nimptsch et al. 2011 [10] Cohort USA 1986–2002 5112/49,934 The highest quintile (≥26 g/day) vs. the lowest (≤15.4 g/day) 1.01 (0.92–1.12) Age, BMI, height, history of diabetes, family history of prostate cancer, race, smoking, vigorous physical activity, energy intake, alcohol intake, calcium intake, alphalinolenic acid, and tomato sauce 7 Local, advanced, low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer Self-administered questionnaire FFQ (131 items)
Drake et al. 2012 [11] Cohort Sweden 1991–2009 817/8128 The highest quintile (≥23.7 g/day) vs. (17.6 g/day) the lowest 1.15 (0.89–1.49) Age, year of study entry, season of data collection, energy intake, height, waist, physical activity, smoking, educational level, birth in Sweden, alcohol, calcium, selenium 9 Low-risk, high-risk, and symptomatic prostate cancer Interview FFQ (168 items)
Deschasaux et al. 2014 [12] Cohort France 1994–2007 139/3313 The highest quartile vs. the lowest 0.47 (0.27–0.81) Age, energy intake without alcohol, intervention group, number of 24-h dietary records, smoking status, educational level, physical activity, height, BMI, alcohol intake, family history of prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen, calcium intake, processed meat intake, tomato product intake, vitamin E intake, and blood selenium 7 Soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, cereal fiber, vegetable fiber, fruit fiber, legume fiber 24-h dietary record
Vidal et al. 2015 [37] HCC USA 2007–2012 156/430 The highest tertile vs. the lowest 0.79 (0.31–1.97) Age, race, family history, caloric intake, carbohydrate intake, BMI, diabetes, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking status 6 Low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer Interview FFQ (61 items)
Sawada et al. 2015 [13] Cohort Japan 1995–2009 825/43,435 The highest quartile vs. the lowest 1.00 (0.77, 1.29) Age, public health center area, smoking status, drinking frequency, marital status, BMI, and intakes of green tea, genistein, SFAs, and carbohydrate 7 Soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, local and advanced prostate cancer Self-administered questionnaire FFQ (138 items)
  1. PCC population-based case-control studies, HCC hospital-based case-control studies, FFQ food-frequency questionnaire, BMI body mass index
  2. aEvaluated by nine-star Newcastle-Ottawa Scale