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Table 2 Epidemiologic studies on serum phytoestrogens concentrations in association with prostate cancer risk

From: Phytoestrogens and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Reference Study site/race Design Cases/controls Serum phytoestrogens Contrast Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjustment
Heald et al. [25] 2007 Scotland/Scottish PCC 249/205 Equol 0 vs. ≥0.10 nmol/l 1.07 (0.71–1.61) Age, total energy intake, family history of PCa and BrCa, Carstairs Deprivation Index, smoking and energy intake: BMR ratio.
Daidzein ≤8.26 vs. >29.11 nmol/l 1.34 (0.76–2.38)
Genistein ≤14.23 vs. >64.53 nmol/l 1.36 (0.76–2.43)
Enterolactone ≤8.41 vs. >28.90 nmol/l 0.40 (0.22–0.71)
Hedelin et al. [32] 2006 Sweden/Swedish PCC 1499/1130 Enterolactone ≤15.2 vs. >37.8 nmol/l 0.74 (0.41–1.32) Age, intake of antibiotics, zinc, animal fat, total energy intake, alcohol, vegetable fat, red meat during the last year
Kurahashi et al. [40] 2007 Japan/Japanese NCC 307/43,509 Genistein <57 vs. ≥151.7 ng/ml 0.66 (0.40–1.08) Smoking status, alcohol intake, marital status, and intake of green tea, protein, fiber, and green or yellow vegetables.
Daidzein <22 vs. ≥61.5 ng/ml 0.78 (0.49–1.25)
Equol <1.0 vs. ≥15.0 ng/ml 0.60 (0.36–0.99)
Ozasa et al. [41] 2004 Japan/Japanese NCC 52/151 Genistein <239 vs. >682 nM 0.76 (0.32–1.82) Age
Daidzein <89 vs. >239 nM 0.74 (0.31–1.76)
Equol <1.9 vs. >56.1 nM 0.39 (0.15–0.98)
Travis et al. [42] 2009 EPIC NCC 950/1042 Genistein <0.30 vs. ≥7.00 ng/ml 0.74 (0.54–1.00) Smoking, education, BMI, physical activity, alcohol intake, and marital status
Daidzein <0.30 vs. ≥4.10 ng/ml 0.80 (0.60–1.07)
Equol <0.05 vs. ≥0.80 ng/ml 0.99 (0.70–1.39)
Enterolactone <0.05 vs. ≥0.80 ng/ml 0.77 (0.57–1.04)
Kilkkinen et al. [38] 2003 Finland NCC 214/214 Enterolactone <5.9 vs. ≥24.4 nmol/l 0.71 (0.42–1.21) Age match
Stattin et al. [37] 2002 Norway, Finland, Sweden NCC 794/2550 Enterolactone <8.9 vs. ≥27.89 nmol/l Finland 1.21 (0.91–1.60) Age match
<3.49 vs. ≥11.58 nmol/l Norway 1.02 (0.59–1.76)
<7.15 vs. ≥25.14 nmol/l Sweden 0.87 (0.45–1.67)
Stattin et al. [39] 2004 Sweden NCC 265/525 Enterolactone <9.38 vs. ≥28.31 nmol/l 1.05 (0.65–1.69) Age, BMI, smoking, and fasting
  1. EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (include 23 centers in 10 European countries), BMI body mass index, NCC nested case–control, PCC population-based case–control, PCa prostate cancer