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Table 1 Rate of upstaging to invasive ductal cancer after subsequent surgical excision

From: Preoperatively diagnosed ductal cancers in situ of the breast presenting as even small masses are of high risk for the invasive cancer foci in postoperative specimen

DCIS presenting as a mass Rate of upstaging P value
All mass DCIS 56 % (35/63) -
Palpability Absent 38 % (13/34) <0.01
Present 76 % (22/29)
Size ≤10 mm 37 % (11/30) <0.01
>10 mm 73 % (24/33)
  ≤15 mm 43 % (20/47) <0.001
>15 mm 94 % (15/16)
  ≤20 mm 48 % (25/52) >0.05
>20 mm 91 % (10/11)
  ≤30 mm 52 % (30/58) <0.05
>30 mm 100 % (5/5)