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Table 2 Results of cox regression analyses by surgical and nonsurgical treatment

From: Conditional survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in surgical and nonsurgical patients: a retrospective analysis report from a single institution in China

Factors Curative resection Palliative surgery Nonsurgery
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
P HR (95 % CI) P P HR (95 % CI) P P HR (95 % CI) P
Age (≤63 v >63) 0.041   0.267 0.002 2.064 (1.222–3.485) 0.007 0.719   NA
Gender (male v female) 0.604   NA 0.411   NA 0.178   NA
Smoking (yes v no) 0.509   NA 0.188   NA 0.902   NA
Diabete (yes v no) 0.976   NA 0.096   NA 0.208   NA
Alcoholism (yes v no) 0.112   NA 0.388   NA 0.723   NA
Tumor size (≤2 v >2) 0.014   0.467 0.283   NA 0.609   NA
Tumor number (single v multiple) 0.143   NA 0.355   NA 0.538   NA
Tumor encapsulation (yes v no) 0.208   NA <0.001 3.799 (2.147–6.723) <0.001 NA   NA
Tumor location (head v body/distal/multifocal) 0.116   NA 0.017   0.088 0.021   0.927
Tumor differentiation (I–II v III–IV) <0.001 4.082 (2.096–7.952) <0.001 0.017   0.122 NA   NA
Lymph nodes positive (yes v no) 0.001 0.395 (0.196–0.798) 0.010 0.005   0.307 NA   NA
AJCC stage (I–II v III–IV) 0.010   0.764 0.892   NA 0.009 1.405 (1.080–1.828) 0.011
CEA (≤2ULN v >2ULN) 0.013   0.078 0.001 3.568 (1.751–7.269) <0.001 0.006 1.600 (1.054–2.428) 0.027
CA19-9 (≤2ULN v >2ULN) 0.033   0.339 <0.001   0.066 0.525   NA
Chemotherapy (yes v no) <0.001 8.050 (2.349–27.591) 0.001 <0.001 13.799 (4.129–45.711) <0.001 <0.001 5.118 (3.209–8.162) <0.001
  1. Univariate analysis: Kaplan-Meier method; multivariate analysis: Cox proportional hazards regression model
  2. CR curative resection, IR incurative resection, UR unresection; Tumor differentiation I: Well differentiated; II: moderately differentiated; III: poorly differentiated; and IV: undifferentiated, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen; CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, NA not adopted