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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis on overall survival

From: Up-front systemic chemotherapy is a feasible option compared to primary tumor resection followed by chemotherapy for colorectal cancer with unresectable synchronous metastases

   Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Factor N HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Treatment      
 PTR 42 Reference 0.093 Reference 0.495
 USC 15 1.76 (0.87 to 3.35)   1.30 (0.60 to 2.73)  
Age      
 <63 years 30 Reference 0.923 - -
 ≥63 years 27 0.97 (0.52 to 1.80)    
Sex      
 Male 15 Reference 0.116 - -
 Female 42 1.70 (0.84 to 3.24)    
BMI      
 <22 kg/m2 33 Reference 0.627 - -
 ≥22 kg/m2 24 0.85 (0.44 to 1.61)    
Tumor location      
 Colon 35 Reference 0.280 - -
 Rectum 22 0.70 (0.35 to 1.32)    
KRAS status      
 Wild type 30 Reference 0.001 Reference 0.004
 Mutant or unknown 27 2.81 (1.49 to 5.31)   2.89 (1.41 to 6.02)  
CEA      
 <5.1 10 Reference 0.822 - -
 ≥5.1 47 1.09 (0.53 to 2.56)    
Invasion depth      
 T1-3 24 Reference 0.0540 Reference 0.065
 T4a, T4b 33 1.93 (0.99 to 3.87)   1.97 (0.96 to 4.24)  
Lymph node metastasis      
 Negative 6 Reference 0.225 - -
 Positive 51 2.47 (0.89 to 10.2)    
Sum of the longest diameters of metastases      
 <67 mm 29 Reference 0.184 - -
 ≥67 mm 28 1.52 (0.82 to 2.87)    
Number of metastases      
 <13 29 Reference 0.084 Reference 0.199
 ≥13 28 1.72 (0.93 to 3.24)   1.55 (0.79 to 3.09)  
Number of organs with metastasis      
 1 22 Reference 0.010 Reference 0.037
 ≥2 35 2.52 (1.26 to 5.48)   2.14 (1.04 to 4.76)  
Peritoneal dissemination      
 No 48 Reference 0.129 - -
 Yes 9 1.90 (0.76 to 4.16)    
Total lines of chemotherapy      
 1 to 2 35 Reference 0.111 - -
 ≥3 22 0.60 (0.31 to 1.13)    
Use of anti-VEGF antibody      
 No 12 Reference 0.403 - -
 Yes 45 0.71 (0.34 to 1.69)    
Use of anti-EGFR antibody (KRAS wild patient only)      
 No 8 Reference 0.197 - -
 Yes 22 2.22 (0.73 to 9.59)    
  1. USC: up-front systemic chemotherapy group. PTR: primary tumor resection group. HR: hazard ratio. CI: confidence interval. BMI: body mass index. KRAS: Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene. EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor. CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen. VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.