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Table 3 EORTC QLQ-CR38 scores by time and gender

From: A longitudinal study of gender differences in quality of life among Japanese patients with lower rectal cancer treated with sphincter-saving surgery: a 1-year follow-up

Questionnaire time points Main effect of time   Main effect of gender   Time-by-gender interaction  
  Men ( n = 42) Women ( n = 33)
Before Postoperative time (month) Before Postoperative time (month)   η² p η² p η² p
(T0) 1 6 12 (T0) 1 6 12 (T0, T1, T2, T3)      
(T1) (T2) (T3) (T1) (T2) (T3)
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean P values   P values   P values  
  SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD       
Functional scales/items               
Body image 85.2 71.6 80.4 78.8 82.2 75.8 76.4 81.8 0.006 0.064 0.992 0.001 0.298 0.017
15.3 27.9 17.7 17.5 21.9 26.7 23.4 20.4 T0 > T1*      
          T1 < T2** T1 < T3**      
Future perspective 60.3 55.4 61.1 62.7 55.6 45.5 57.6 62.6 0.025 0.045 0.281 0.016 0.634 0.007
25.8 34.8 26.5 26.8 28.5 33.2 19.2 21.7 T1 < T3*      
Sexual functioning 21.8 18.7 21.0 14.7 14.3 4.2 7.1 7.7 0.009 0.059 0.002 0.133 0.146 0.024
21.6 19.6 17.7 14.8 19.1 9.8 15.3 16.7 T0 > T3*   Men > Women   
Sexual enjoyment 47.6 28.6 33.3 23.8 33.3 22.2 44.4 33.3 0.272 0.147 0.434 0.106 1.000 0.001
  26.2 29.9 27.2 25.2 22.5 19.3 19.3 22.5       
Symptom scales/items (#)               
Micturition problems 19.1 37.2 24.6 22.8 10.1 26.3 19.2 15.8 < 0.001 0.171 0.014 0.080 0.668 0.006
21.7 27.5 17.1 17.2 12.5 21.1 17.6 15.5 T0 < T1*** T0 < T2*   Men > Women   
          T1 > T2* T1 > T3**      
Gastrointestinal tract symptoms 16.7 24.7 15.7 17.1 24.4 28.3 21.6 17.0 0.012 0.055 0.163 0.027 0.495 0.010
19.3 20.1 12.9 15.7 27.6 30.0 14.8 2.5 T1 > T2* T1 > T3*      
Defecation problems 19.7 36.1 26.8 24.3 19.7 30.9 21.7 17.4 < 0.001 0.205 0.055 0.051 0.383 0.014
15.3 18.1 11.4 15.6 14.0 14.5 11.2 11.0 T0 < T1***      
          T1 > T2*** T1 > T3***      
Weight loss 9.5 24.6 5.5 5.6 11.1 23.2 14.1 14.1 < 0.001 0.116 0.168 0.026 0.289 0.017
18.5 28.6 12.6 12.6 16.0 28.2 26.4 23.6 T0 < T1**      
          T1 > T2*** T1 > T3***      
  1. Higher scores on functional scales and overall QOL scale represent higher levels of functioning. Higher score on symptoms scales or single items (#) indicate higher levels of symptoms or problems.
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.