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Table 3 Physical properties of radionuclides that have been utilized with the gamma detection probe in radioguided surgery

From: A comprehensive overview of radioguided surgery using gamma detection probe technology

Radionuclides Physical half-life Principle gamma photon radiation emission(s) Emission probability per decay (percent photon yield)
Cobalt-57 (57Co) 271.8 days 14, 122, 136 keV 9.2, 85.5, 10.7%
Fluorine-18 (18F) 110 minutes 511 keV* 19.3%
Galium-67 (67Ga) 78.3 hours (3.26 days) 91, 93, 184, 209, 300, 393 keV 3.0, 37.8, 20.1, 2.4, 16.8, 4.7%
Indium-111 (111In) 67.4 hours (2.81 days) 171, 247 keV 90.7, 94.1%
Iodine-123 (123I) 13.2 hours 159, 529 keV 83.4, 1.3%
Iodine-124 (124I) 100.3 hours (4.18 days) 511 keV* not easily characterized
Iodine-125 (125I) 1443.4 hours (60.14 days) 35 keV 6.7%
Iodine-131 (131I) 193.0 hours (8.04 days) 80, 284, 364, 637, 642, 723 keV 2.6, 6.1, 81.2, 7.3, 0.2, 1.8%
Technetium-99m (99mTc) 6.04 hours 140, 142 keV 88.5, 0.023%
Thallium-201 (201Tl) 73.0 hours (3.04 days) 71, 135, 167 keV 47.0, 2.7, 10.0%
  1. * The 511 keV gamma photons are generated from positron-electron annihilation.