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Table 8 Summary of the molecular alterations studied in the progression of Barrett's associated carcinogenesis (list none exhaustive).

From: Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma

Increased proliferation  
Growth factors Receptors/effectors
TGFα  
EGF EGFR
  C-erb-B2 (Her-2/Neu)
TGFβ TGFβR 2
  Smad 4
  p27
Mediators of inflammation  
Cox-2 PKC
INOS  
TNFα β catenin, c-myc
Luminal components  
Gastrin CCK2
Bile salts Cox-2
Acid Cox-2
  PKC
  p38MAPK
  JUNK
  p44ERK
Oncogenes  
Ras  
Fos  
Jun  
c-myc  
Cell cycle proteins  
Cyclin D1, E, B1  
Rb  
p16  
Avoidance of apoptosis  
p53 p21(cip1/waf1)
Bcl-2  
Bax  
Increased invasive potential  
Angiogenesis  
FGF 1&2  
VEGF  
Cell-cell – adhesion  
E-cadherin  
α, β, γ catenin  
APC