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Table 4 Risk factors for postoperative complications

From: Rectal cancer surgery in older people does not increase postoperative complications - a retrospective analysis

  Complications Complications P-value
No Yes
Gender    0.920
 Female 17 (61) 11 (39)  
 Male 16 (59) 11 (41)  
UICC-criteria    0.114
 I 16 (76) 5 (24)  
 II 5 (50) 5 (50)  
 III 7 (50) 7 (50)  
 IV 3 (50) 3 (50)  
Preoperative therapy    0.591
 No therapy 24 (65) 13 (35)  
 Chemo or radio/chemotherapy 4 (57) 3 (43)  
 Radiotherapy 5 (45 6 (55)  
Tumor localization    0.839
 Upper rectum (12 to 16 cm) 4 (57) 3 (43)  
 Middle rectum (6 to 12 cm) 15 (60) 10 (40)  
 Lower rectum (≤6 cm) 14 (63) 8 (36)  
Operative access    0.024
 Open 24 (55) 20 (45)  
 Laparoscopic 1 (33) 2 (67)  
 Transanal 8 (100) 0  
Operation technique    0.126
 Low anterior resection 14 (50) 14 (50)  
 Rectum extirpation 3 (50) 3 (50)  
 Intersphincteric resection 1 (100) 0  
 Transanal endoscopic microsurgery 8 (100) 0  
 Hartmann’s procedure 3 (43) 4 (57)  
 Complete rectal resection 3 (75) 1 (25)  
 Others 1 (100) 0  
Anastomotic technique    0.354
 No anastomosis 12 (63) 7 (37)  
 Staple 15 (52) 14 (48)  
 Manual 5 (83) 1 (17)  
Anastomotic form    0.500
 No anastomosis 12 (63) 7 (37)  
 J-pouch 0 1 (100)  
 End-to-side anastomosis 1 (33) 2 (67)  
 End-to-end anastomosis 20 (63) 12 (37)  
Stomas    0.645
 Colostoma 10 (56) 8 (44)  
 Ileostoma 8 (53) 7 (47)  
 None 15 (68) 7 (32)  
Accessory surgery    0.253
 None 23 (66) 12 (34)  
 Accessory surgery 10 (50) 10 (50)  
Neurological diseases    0.033
 No 32 (65) 17 (35)  
 Yes 1 (17) 5 (83)  
Cardiovascular diseases    0.037
 No 15 (79) 4 (21)  
 Yes 18 (50) 18 (50)  
Diabetes mellitus    0.289
 No 26 (57) 20 (43)  
 Yes 7 (78) 2 (22)  
Pulmonary diseases    0.244
 No 27 (64) 15 (36)  
 Yes 6 (46) 7 (54)  
Smoker    0.760
 No 26 (60) 17 (40)  
 Yes 1 (33) 2 (67)  
 No longer 6 (67) 3 (33)  
  1. Values are given as numbers and absolute frequencies (%).