Forest plots for therapeutic success rates of the three randomized controlled trials. (A) Random-effects analysis of overall success rates. (B) Sensitivity analysisof primary outcomes based on the leave-one-out approach. (C) Success rates for the two randomized controlled trials after excluding the Speer et al. trial. CI, Confidence interval; EBD, Endoscopic biliary drainage; PTBD, Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.