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Table 1 Modified Clavien classification system for surgical complications

From: Fewer complications after laparoscopic nephrectomy as compared to the open procedure with the modified Clavien classification system - a retrospective analysis from Southern China

Low grade
Grade I Any deviation from the normal intraoperative or postoperative course, including the need for pharmacologic treatment other than antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics, electrolytes, or physiotherapy
Grade II Complications needing only the use of intravenous medications, total intravenous nutrition, or blood transfusion
High grade
Grade IIIa Complications needing surgical, endoscopic, or radiologic intervention under local anesthesia
Grade IIIb Complications needing surgical, endoscopic, or radiologic intervention under general anesthesia
Grade IVa Life-threatening complications requiring ICU management - single organ dysfunction (including hemodialysis)
Grade IVb Life-threatening complications requiring ICU management - multi-organ dysfunction
Grade V Death of the patient