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Table 2 Pooled risk estimates for the associations between total vitamin A and retinol and bladder cancer stratified by study design, gender, geographical region, and source of intake

From: Vitamin A and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Subgroup Total vitamin A Retinol
  RE (95% CI) Pheterogeneity(I2score) RE (95% CI) Pheterogeneity(I2score)
Study design    
Cohort 0.86 (0.67, 1.03) 0.200 (33.1%) 0.91 (0.65, 1.17) 0.366 (0)
Case–control 0.78 (0.59, 0.97) 0.027 (60.4%) 0.87 (0.70, 1.04) 0.006 (60.9%)
Gender    
Male 0.80 (0.66, 0.93) 0.160 (35.1%) 1.00 (0.69, 1.31) 0.067 (58.1%)
Female 0.68 (0.45, 0.91) 0.247 (27.6%) 1.51 (1.01, 2.00) 0.364 (0)
Geographical region    
Europe 0.79 (0.24, 1.34) 0.040 (76.3%) 0.65 (0.62, 1.09) 0.138 (42.7%)
US/Canada 0.83 (0.68, 0.98) 0.047 (50.8%) 0.94 (0.74, 1.13) 0.047 (55.5%)
Japan 0.76 (0.45, 1.27) - 0.63 (0.38, 1.02) -
Source of intake    
Diet 0.90 (0.80, 1.01) 0.426 (0) 0.87 (0.7, 1.04) 0.007 (60.3%)
Supplement 0.64 (0.47, 0.82) 0.568 (0) 0.80 (0.52, 1.23) -
Diet and supplement 0.80 (0.49, 1.12) 0.045 (62.7%) 0.72 (0.43, 1.00) 0.110 (54.8%)