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Table 1 Study characteristics of published cohort and case–control studies on vitamin A and bladder cancer risk

From: Vitamin A and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Authors and publication year Study design Country Study period Sex Age (years) Cases/subjects Anatomical site Parameters examined Study qualitya Variables of adjustment
[10] PCC Canada 1977 to 1982 M/F 35 to 79 826/1,618 Bladder Diet: vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene 7 Age, sex, area of residence, smoking, history of diabetes
[11] PCC Sweden 1985 to 1987 M/F 40 to 74 418/929 Urothelium Supplement: vitamin A, β-carotene 7 Age, sex, smoking
Diet: retinol
[12] PCC USA 1977 to 1986 M/F 30 to 93 261/783 Urothelium Total: vitamin A, retinol, carotenoids 8 Age, sex, ethics, smoking
[13] PCC Spain 1985 to 1986 M < 80 432/1,224 Bladder Diet: retinol, carotene 8 Age, sex, smoking, total calories
[14] Cohort USA 1981 to 1989 M 65 to 84 71/70,159 Bladder Supplement: vitamin A 5 Age and smoking
Diet: β-carotene
[15] PCC USA 1981 to 1984 M/F 45 to 65 262/667 Bladder Diet: vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene 8 Age, sex, county, smoking, calories
Supplement: vitamin A, retinol
Total: vitamin A
Michand et al. 2000 Cohort USA 1986 to 1998 M 40 to 75 320/51,529 Bladder Total: vitamin A 7 Age, energy, pack-years of smoking, current smoking status, geographic region of the USA, cruciferous vegetable intake, total fluid intake
[17] HCC Japan 1996 to 1999 M/F 20 to 99 297/692 Bladder Diet: vitamin A, retinol, carotene 6 Age, sex, smoking, occupational history as a cook
Total: vitamin A, retinol, carotene
[18] Cohort Netherlands 1986 to 1992 M/F 55 to 69 569/3,692 Urinary tract Total: retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin 8 Age, sex, cigarette smoking amount, duration of smoking
Michand et al. 2002 Cohort Finland 1985 to 1998 M 50 to 69 344/27,111 Bladder Diet: vitamin A, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin 7 Age, duration of smoking, smoking dose, total energy, trial intervention
[20] Cohort (nested) USA 1971 to 1995 M/F 52 to 71 111/222 Urothelium Serum: retinol, carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin 8 Age, sex, smoking
[21] PCC USA 1987 to 1996 M/F 25 to 64 1,592/3,184 Bladder Diet: retinol, carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin 8 Age, sex, education, number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of years of smoking, smoking status, lifetime use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, number of years employed as a hairdresser/barber
[22] HCC USA 1999 to 2003 M/F Not mentioned 409/860 Bladder Diet: carotenoids, provitamin A, non-provitamin A 7 Age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, total energy
[23] Cohort USA 1980 to 2000 F 30 to 55 237/88,796 Bladder Total: vitamin A, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin 7 Age, pack-years of smoking, current smoking, total caloric intake
[25] Cohort (nested) Japan 1990 to 2007 M/F >40 42/1,666 Urothelium Serum: provitamin A, retinol, carotenes, carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin 7 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, total cholesterol, education
[24] HCC USA 1993 to 1997 M/F Not mentioned 84/257 Bladder Plasma: α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin 5 Age, sex, pack-years of smoking, education
[26] PCC Belgium 1999 to 2004 M/F Not mentioned 178/540 Bladder Diet: retinol 7 Sex, age, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of years smoking, occupational exposure to PAH or aromatic amines, total fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of vitamin E and C and total anti-oxidant
status
[27] HCC Spain 1998 to 2001 M/F Not mentioned 912/1,789 Bladder Diet: retinol and carotenoids 6 Age, gender, region, smoking status, smoking duration
[28] HCC USA 1999 to M/F Not mentioned 386/773 Bladder Diet: retinol 6 Age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, number of cigarettes per day, smoking duration
Plasma: retinol
[29] Cohort Denmark 1993 to 2006 M/F 50 to 64 322/55,557 Urothelium Diet: β-carotene 8 Age, intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, smoking status, smoking duration, smoking intensity, passive smoking, work exposure.
Supplement: β-carotene
Total: β-carotene
[30] PCC USA 1997 to 2001 M/F 25 to 74 322/561 Bladder Total: carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein 8 Age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake
[31] Cohort USA 2000 to 2007 M/F 50 to 76 330/77,050 Bladder Supplement: β-carotene and retinol 8 Age, sex, race, education, family history of bladder cancer, smoking status/recency of smoking, pack-years of smoking, servings per day of fruits, servings per day of vegetables
[33] PCC USA 2001 to 2004 M/F 30 to 79 1,418/2,589 Bladder Diet: vitamin A, α-carotene, β-carotene 8 Age, gender, region, race, Hispanic status, smoking status, usual body mass index, total energy
[32] Cohort (nested) Europe 1990 to 2005 M/F 25 to 70 856/1,712 Urothelium Diet: β-carotene 8 Age at blood collection, study center, sex, date of blood collection, time of blood collection, fasting status; further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity
Plasma: carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin
[34] Cohort USA 1993 to 2007 M/F 45 to 75 581/185,885 Bladder Diet: vitamin A, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein 8 Age, ethnicity, total energy intake, family history, employment in a high-risk industry, smoking, number of years since quitting, interactions of ethnicity with status
  1. aEvaluated by the nine-star Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. HCC, hospital-based case–control study; PCC, population-based case–control study.