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Table 1 Characteristics of studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis

From: Effects of manual lymphatic drainage on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Reference Inclusion criteria No. of patients Age, years, (mean ± SD) Intervention
Treatment
Andersen, 2000 Symptoms of lymphedema; 20 mm circumference or 200 ml volume difference between arms C: 22 C: 56 (29 to 77)a C: Sleeve and glove compression 32 to 40 mmHg + exercises + skin care + safety precautions
   I: 20 I: 53 (25 to 73) I: C + MLD 8 times in 2 weeks
Didem, 2005 2-50 mm circumference difference between arms; lymphedema > 12 months after surgery C: 26 C: 54.7 ± 12.1 C: Bandaging; elevation; head, neck and shoulder exercise, 3 days/week for 4 weeks
   I: 27 I: 53.1 ± 3.05 I: C + MLD
Johansson, 1998 >10% volume difference between arms C: 12 C: 57.5 (47.5-69.5)a C: Sleeve compression for 2 weeks + SPC 40 to 60 mmHg 2 hours/day for 2 weeks
   I: 12 I: 64 (52.5-69.5) I: Sleeve compression 2 weeks + MLD for 5 days/weeks for 2 weeks
Johansson, 1999 >10% volume difference between arms C: 18 C: 64 ± 12 C: Bandage compression for 3 weeks
   I: 20 I: 58 ± 12 I: C + MLD applied for 5 days during final weeks
McNeely, 2004 150 ml volume difference between arms C: 24 C: 58 ± 13 C: Bandage compression for 4 weeks
   I: 21 I: 63 ± 13 I: C + MLD for 45 minutes/day 5 days/week for 4 weeks
Sitzia, 2002 Lymphedema of one arm secondary to treatment for breast cancer C: 13 C: 75 ± 10.2 C: SLD 30 minutes/day, 5 days/weeks for 2 weeks + bandage + exercises
   I: 15 I: 68 ± 10.4 I: MLD 90 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks + bandage + exercises
Williams, 2002 >10% volume difference between arms G1: 15 A: 63 ± 13 G1: MLD for 3 weeks, then no treatment for 6 weeks, then SLD for 3 weeks
   G2: 16 B: 58 ± 13 G2: SLD for 3 weeks, then no treatment for 6 weeks, then MLD for 3 weeks
Szolnoky, 2009 Lymphedema >12 months after surgery G1: 13 G1: 54.8 G1: MLD 60 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks
   G2: 14 G2: 56.6 G2: MLD for 30 minutes/day then SPC 50 mmHg for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks
Prevention
Devoogdt, 2011 Patients after breast-cancer surgery C: 81 C: 54.5 ± 11.1 C: Exercise therapy 30 minutes/session
   I: 77 I: 55.8 ± 12.5 I: C + MLD 30 minutes/session for 40 sessions
Torres Lacomba, 2010 Patients after breast-cancer surgery C: 60 C: 52.9 ± 12.5 C: Educational strategy
   I: 60 I: 52.9 ± 10.7 I: C + MLD + massage + exercise
  1. Abbreviations: C, control; I, intervention; G, group; MLD, manual lymphatic drainage; SLD, simple lymph drainage; SPC, sequential pneumatic compression.
  2. Values are mean ± standard deviation, except for amean (range).