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Table 5 Biomarkers involved in PanCa cancer with diabetes

From: The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

Biomarkers Site Expression levels Role Refs
IAPP Serum Increased Early stage of PanCa [28]
  Tissue Decreased Early stage of PanCa [72, 73]
Glucagon/insulin ratio Serum Increased Identify PanCa in patients with new-onset DM [74]
Adrenomedullin Serum Increased Potential biomarker of PanCa-related DM [75]
Fatty acid binding protein-1 Tissue Increased Diagnosis of PanCa [76]
A 14-amino-acid peptide from S100A8 Serum Increased Identify PanCa in patients with new-onset DM [38]
Vanin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 Serum Increased Potential biomarker of PanCa-related DM [77]
Higher CA 19–9 and/or CEA Serum Increased Screen early PanCa [79]
Erc/Mesothelin Serum Increased Screen early PanCa [81]
  1. CA, cancer antigen; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; DM, diabetes mellitus; IAPP, islet amyloid polypeptide; PanCa, pancreatic cancer.