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Table 3 The potential mechanisms of hyperglycemia in PanCa progression

From: The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

Parameters Expression levels Role in PanCa Refs
RAGE   Increased Increased metastatic ability [44, 45]
ROS Hydrogen peroxide Increased Enhanced the invasive and [46, 48]
   Increased migratory activity  
Antioxidant MnSOD Decreased Enhanced the invasive and migratory activity [50, 51]
enzymes Catalase, glutathione peroxidase Decreased   
   Decreased   
Cytokines and their receptors GDNF and RET Increased Enhanced cell proliferation [55]
  EGF Increased Enhanced cell proliferation [56]
  EGFR Transactivation Enhanced cell proliferation  
  NGF Increased Aggravated the process of perineural invasion [58]
  P75 Decreased   
  1. EGF, epidermal growth factor; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; GDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; MnSOD, manganese superoxide dismutase; NGF, nerve growth factor; PanCa, pancreatic cancer; RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation end products; ROS, reactive oxygen species; uPA, urokinase plasminogen activator.