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Table 1 Perioperative immunonutrition support: clinical outcomes a

From: Immunonutrition for patients undergoing elective surgery for gastrointestinal cancer: impact on hospital costs

Outcome variable With perioperative immunonutritionb Without immunonutrition Difference or RR (95% CI)
N = 442 N = 447
Mean length of stay 13.31 15.48 Δ = −2.18
Percentage reduction in length of stay    14.1%
Percentage with any infectious complications 14.71% 31.32% RR = 0.46
Number (%) in pooled trial populations with specific complicationsc    
Wound infection 26 (5.9%) 43 (9.6%) RR 0.61
(0.38, 0.96)
Abdominal abscess 9 (2.0%) 21 (4.7%) RR 0.43
(0.21, 0.91)
Pneumonia 25 (5.7%) 47 (10.5%) RR 0.54
(0.34, 0.87)
Urinary tract infection 11 (2.5%) 20 (4.5%) RR 0.53
(0.23, 1.19)
Sepsis 8 (1.8%) 16 (3.6%) RR 0.53
(0.22, 1.27)
Anastomotic leak 15 (3.4%) 29 (6.5%) RR 0.52
(0.28, 0.95)
  1. Abbreviations: Δ, absolute difference; RR relative risk with 95% confidence interval in ().
  2. a Calculated from data reported in Waitzberg et al.[4].
  3. b Three 240-mL (8-ounce) servings of oral supplement per day for five days prior to surgery, followed by early enteral feeding (within 24 hours postsurgery) at a goal of one liter per day.
  4. c Note that a patient may experience more than one complication.